H 2 O CO 2 Naming Chemical Compounds 26 Loosely Five categories for naming

H 2 o co 2 naming chemical compounds 26 loosely five

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H 2 O > CO 2
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Naming Chemical Compounds 26 Loosely Five categories for naming compounds Ionic compounds Covalent compounds Organic compounds Acids/Bases Metal with nonmetal Electron transferred from one atom to another and electrostatic attraction holds molecule together Nonmetal with nonmetal Electrons spend time between atoms and proton electron attraction holds atoms together Carbon containing compounds (excluding carbon oxides) Species that donate or accept protons (one definition) Compounds with common names Water and ammonia
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Writing Ionic formulas 27 Ionic compounds typically form when a metal and a nonmetal react Metals tend to lose one or more electrons to form positive ions Nonmetals tend to gain one or more electrons to form negative ions Symbol for the metal given first in formula Formula for binary ionic compound represents the minimum number of each ion that when combined will provide equal numbers of positive and negative electrical charges (a neutral molecule)
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Example: 28 Aluminum and oxygen Al is group 3A metal : Likely to lose 3 electrons: Al 3+ Oxygen is group 6A nonmetal: Likely to gain 2 electrons: O 2- Need appropriate number of atoms to balance 3+ with 2- Al 2 O 3
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Naming Binary Ionic Compounds 29 1. Cation named first and anion second 2. Cation takes name from name of parent element 3. Anion named by taking the root of the element name and adding – ide 4. No Prefixes are used
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Binary Examples potassium chloride magnesium bromide Examples: KCl MgBr 2 CaO calcium oxide 30
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31 The formula for magnesium fluoride is A. MgF B. MgF 2 C. Mg 2 F D. MgF 4 E. None of the above
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Compounds with more than one oxidation state 32 Transition metal cations usually require a Roman numeral Charge on the metal ion must be specified. Roman numeral indicates the charge of the metal cation
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Periodic Table 33
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Binary Examples copper(I) bromide iron(II) sulfide Examples: CuBr FeS PbO 2 lead(IV) oxide 34
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Polyatomic Ions Must be memorized (Table 2.3 (pg 60 in text)) Exampl e o s of comp unds containing polyatomic ions: CuSO 4 copper(II) sulfate KSCN potass i um thiocyanate NH 4 NO 3 ammo ium nitrate Formula Name Cations 35 Formula Name Oxoanions NH + 3 SO 2– 4 H 3 O + 4 SO 2– 2 Hg 2+ ammonium hydronium mercury(I) 2 NO 3 NO n PO 4 3– 4 MnO Diatomic anions OH CN hydroxid e cyanide 4 CrO 2– 7 Cr 2 O 2– Anions containing carbon ClO 3 CO 2– 2 ClO 2 CH 3 CO 3 ClO 4 C 2 O 2– carbonate acetate oxalate 4 ClO sulfite sulfate nitrite nitrate phosphate permanganate chromate dichromate hypochlorite chlorite chlorate perchlorate
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