DSST Fundamentals of counseling

Perls argued that people have an innate goodness and

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Frederich S. Perls argued that people have an innate goodness and that this nature should be allowed to express itself at all times. Gestalt therapy was developed based on his work. Gestalt therapy contends that psychological problems all arise from denials of this innate goodness or frustration with its nature. Carl Rogers's client-centered therapy contends that people that can only be understood by approaching them from the vantage point of their phenomenological world. A person's phenomenological world, their thoughts and feelings, is unique to them and the major influence on their behavior. Rogers claimed that the only way a therapist can understand a patient is by understanding the patient's phenomenological world. Humanism is a type of psychology that was in many ways a reaction to behaviorism . Humanism’s leader was Carl Rogers (1902-1987). Humanistic psychologists believe that the individual or self should be the central concern of psychology. It is their argument that we need to get the "person" back into psychology. Gestalt therapy focuses on what is happening in the now and only focuses on the past by bringing it into the present. In Gestalt therapy, clients are discouraged from looking into their past or asking why questions. Such focuses are thought to be an attempt to escape having to make decisions and choices in the present. Reality theory is based on the notion that people are born with five genetically encoded needs. The five needs are survival, love, power, freedom, and fun. Everyone needs these things but in varying degrees and strengths. Reality theory is based on Choice theory whereby we don’t act to satisfy our needs directly but rather make a set of choices that gets us to the point where our needs can be met. When a client makes a series of good choices they are rewarded with satisfied needs. This reward provides the motivation to make choices that will move people in the direction of their needs and goals. Reality theory focuses on what the person can control in their relationships and how they can begin to exert power over their choices and make positive changes. A reality therapist is likely to ask the following question: “Does your present behavior have a reasonable chance of getting you what you want and will it take you in the direction you want to go?” In reality therapy the counselor gets the client to evaluate his or her own behavior and examine whether or not it is working. A popular reality therapist today is Dr. Phil who’s signature line is, “Is that working for you?” Clients evaluate their total behavior pattern and look at the consequences of their decisions to determine if in fact their current problem solving skills are getting them what they want. One type of therapy which is based on the premise that suffering of the psyche and emotions is due to primarily unverbalized feelings and demands that people internalize is Ellis 's rational-emotive behavior therapy.
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