53 resumptive modifier find the key noun adjective or

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Resumptive Modifier Find the key noun, adjective, or verb and repeat it, after a coma ending a grammatically complete sentence 54
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Resumptive Modifier When we discovered the earth was not the center of the universe, it changed our understanding of who we are. Our understanding changed again by Darwin, again by Freud, and again by Einstein When we discovered the earth was not the center of the universe, it changed our understanding of who we are, which changed again by Darwin, again by Freud, and again by Einstein. When we discovered the earth was not the center of the universe, it changed our understanding of who we are, an understanding changed again by Darwin, again by Freud, and again by Einstein. 55
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It was American writers who found a voice that was true to the rhythms of the working man’s speech and lyrical in its celebration of his labor. It was American writers who found a voice that was both true and lyrical, true to the rhythms of the working man’s speech and lyrical in its celebration of his labor. All who value independence should resist the trivialization of government regulation, resist its obsession with administrative tidiness and compulsion to arrange things not for our convenience but for theirs. 56
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Summative Modifier Add a summary with a key term of the previous sentence, after a coma ending a grammatically complete sentence Economic changes have reduced Russian population growth to less than zero. These changes will have serious social implications. Economic changes have reduced Russian population growth to less than zero, which will have serious social implications. Economic changes have reduced Russian population growth to less than zero, a demographic event that will have serious social implications. 57
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Free Modifier Comment on the previous sentence, after a coma ending a grammatically complete sentence Usually, the modifier is a verb in “ing” form Global warming will become a central political issue of the twenty- first century. It will raise questions whose answers will affect the standard of living in every Western nation. Global warming will become a central political issue of the twenty- first century, raising questions whose answers will affect the standard of living in every Western nation. 58
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Coordination Coordinate elements that are parallel both in grammar and in sense And, or, not, but, yet Balance and symmetry are important for the elegance Each coordinated fragment echoing the other one When balance is not possible Always coordinate from the short/simple fragment to the long/complex one 59
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Besides the fact that no civilization has experienced such a rapid alterations in their spiritual and mental lives, the material conditions of their daily existence have changed greatly too.
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  • Grammar, Passive voice, Dependent clause

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