■ Adam’s weakness was his out-of-date political style ● He was the last noteable to serve in the White House ● He was losing his popularity ● He did not fit in with the modern times and increased democracy ● “The Democracy” and the Election of 1828 ○ Martin Van Buren and the politicians handling Andrew Jackson’s campaign for the presidency had no reservations about running for office ■ John Calhoun ● Jackson’s running mate ● Brought his South Carolina allies into Van Buren’s party ■ Van Buren ● To put Jackson in the White House, Van Buren revived the political coalition created by Thomas Jefferson ○ Championing policies that appealed to southern planters and northern farmers and artisans ● Hoped a national party would reconcile the diverse interests that inevitably existed in a large republic ○ At Van Buren’s direction, the Jacksonians orchestrated a massive publicity
campaign ■ In New York, 50 Democrat-funded newspapers declared their support for Jackson ■ Jacksonians used mass meetings, parades, and barbeques ○ Called themselves Democrats to convey their egalitarian message ■ The message appealed to many social groups ● Northeastern artisans threatened by industrialization ● Ironworkers in PA ● Farmers in NY ○ Benefitted from tariff ● Popular in south ○ Promised to balalnce regional interests ● Southwest and Midwesy ○ He was hostile towards Native Americans, which they liked ○ Jefferson was elected in 1828 ■ More than ½ the elctorate went to the polls — in the previous election only ¼ ■ Got 56 percent vote ■ He was the first president from a tran-Appalachian state The Jacksonian Presidency (1829-1837) ● Background ○ American-style political democracy — a broad franchise, a disciplined political party, and policies favoring specific interests — ushered Andrew Jackson into office. Jackson used his popular mandate to transform the policies of the national government and the definition of the presidency. During his two terms, he enhanced presidential authority, destroyed the mercantilist and nationalist American System, and established a new ideology of limited government. An Ohio supporter summed up Jackson’s vision: “the Sovereignty of the People, the Rights of the States, and a Light and Simple Government.” ● Jackson’s Agenda: Rotation and Decentralization ● The Tariff and Nullification ○ The Tariff of 1828 helped Jackson win the presidency, but saddled him with a major political crisis ■ There was fierce opposition to high tariff in the south, especially SC
● Only state with an African American majority → feared black rebellion and feared abolition of slavery ● They attacked the tariff to lower rates and to discourage the use of federal power to attack slavery ○ 1832: crisis begins ■ Congressmen ignored southern warnings that they were endangering the Union and reenacted the Tariff of Abominations ● South Carolinians called a state convention ○ Adopted an Ordinance of Nullification ■ Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were null and void ■
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