451 481 Although never called psychological warfare the public information

451 481 although never called psychological warfare

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March 2004, volume 2, issue 30, pg. 451-481.Although never called psychological warfare, the public informationcampaign outlined in the Project can be read as a retooling of the psychological strategies aimed at enemies abroad, now deployed for use as "emotional management techniques for psychologically manipulating" the U.S. public at home(Oakes 1994: 51). Public opinion polls, attitude surveys, in-depth interviews and personality analyses were the techniques used simultaneously to conduct psychological warfare abroad, and to promote 'morale' among civilians in the U.S. (Herman 1995: 31). And so the management of fear-avoiding the dangers of its excess(the chaos of panic), or its absence(the unpreparedness of apathy) -becomes a primary aim in constructing the ideal civilian-soldier(Oakes 1994: 6271). In the Project's plan for an informed public inoculated against the threat of mass panic, the encouragement of individual and group fear is acknowledged as a necessary strategy. Under conditions of atomic threat, the boundary between national security andnational fear is reconfigured: national security IS national fear. A nation whose civilians don't fear their own annihilation is a nation without an effective military defense system. But by 1953, according to the picture drawn by public opinion and survey research, little has changed in the general psychology of civilian soldiers: the public continues to be confused and psychologically distanced from the looming dangers of atomic warfare. Researchers at the University of Michigan's Survey Research Center -who start conducting government sponsored surveys on atomic attitudes in 1946 25 -summarize their survey findings on a public uninterested in learning about the effects of atomic bombs, unaffected by conscious worry about atomic war, with unstable attitudes lacking any "logical structure" or well-developed thinking. The authors conclude that the high profile of atomic matters in the mass media and "popular fantasy," stands in stark contrast to its apparent absence in "people's conscious day-to-day thoughts." They suggest that perhaps a disavowal of anxiety is operating as a defense against intolerable feelings of fear and powerlessness in the face of the new weapons.Further research ld systematic investigation are recommended (Douvan and Withy 1953: )9-111, 114-117). Now it's 1955. The byline reads "Survival City, Nev.," and the news port narrates the highlights of the first atomic bomb dropped on atypical U.S. town. Part laboratory experiment, part reality, part mass-mediated spectacle, the incendiary fate of Survival City is to broadcast live through CBS and NBC-TV to an estimated audience of 100 million viewers 10 tune in to watch the blast. The climactic televising of the explosion preceded by two weeks of live telecasts three times daily from the test site. The town, composed of ten brick and cement houses and federal prefabricated industrial buildings, isbuilt and bombed to test the effectiveness of civil defense procedures during a simulated atomic attack. The 500 witnesses to the explosion in the Nevada
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