Ice cream sales do cause higher homicide ratings 2 Reverse causation Higher

Ice cream sales do cause higher homicide ratings 2

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Ice cream sales do cause higher homicide ratings 2. Reverse causation Higher homicide ratings cause ice cream sales 3. Third variable The hot weather (third variable = temperature) causes both ice cream sales and higher homicide ratings
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Pets and Asthma Anecdote “Children who have pets have greater resistance to asthma.” Participants who want a puppy volunteer to get a puppy and get a certain amount of money to take care of the puppy What is the problem with a study like this?
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Key Ingredients for an experimental study Manipulation Control Measurement
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Manipulation Experiments must actually change the experience of the participants In this case, the experience is either having a puppy or not having a puppy
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Control Holding constant: Ensuring that two groups are treated identically except for the manipulation Random assignment: Ensuring that each subject has an equal chance of being assigned to each group E.g. The experimenters must randomly assign which group gets a puppy and who doesn’t
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Measurement The dependent variable needs to be measured with a valid, powerful, and reliable device E.g. Let participants take a lung function test to measure their condition
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Controlling for a variable Controlling for a variable: the attempt to reduce the effect of confounding variables in an observational study or experiment E.g.: making sure everyone comes from a similar SES before conducting experiment Every time you control for a variable, you are getting closer to establishing a relationship between pets and health However, you will never be able to come to the conclusion that one variable *causes* another, because there will always be a third variable in a correlational study
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