those who participate in the policy making process as well as those who gain

Those who participate in the policy making process as

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those who participate in the policy-making process as well as those who gain and lose as the result of a specific policy”. Research using the SCF focuses on the impact of the positive or negative social construction on a target group. This includes whether a target group is perceived positively or negatively, and the effect of this social construction on different stages of
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68 the public policy process, such as participation in the public policy process, the allocation of benefits and burdens and the initiation of policy change (Ingram et al. 2007, pp. 114-117). As it stands, Ingram et al.’s SCF is, therefore, better suited to evaluate public policy outcomes with respect to the groups affected, rather than agenda setting. A summary of the SCF is presented in Figure 3.4. Figure 3.4: Summary ‘Social Construction Framework’ Epistemological perspective Social construction, target groups as explanatory elements of policy design and policy change Cause of change Not clearly defined, interdependent relationship between policy design, actors and policy outcome, including both exogenous (resource, institutions, culture) and endogenous (interpretive) factors and impacts Type of change (incremental or radical) Both Change progression Non-linear Perspective on institutions Wide, including historic and political elements (degenerative politics and professionalised or expert politics) Motivations of actors Not identified Level of agency of actors High Relationship between agency and structure/institutions Interdependent, with focus on agency and context Are underlying theoretical assumptions compatible with epistemological outlook? Yes Suited for qualitative case study research? Yes
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69 3.5 PUBLIC POLICY CONSTRUCTS WITH ECLECTIC EPISTEMOLOGIES 3.5.1 The advocacy coalition framework AC attempts “to explain policy change within a policy subsystem over relatively long periods of time.” (Schlager 2007, p. 298). It is based on three “foundation stones”: “(1) a macro level assumption that most policymaking occurs among specialists within a policy subsystem but that their behaviour is affected by factors in the broader political and socioeconomic system; (2) a micro-lev el “model of the individual” that is drawn heavily from social psychology; and (3) a meso -level conviction that the best way to deal with the multiplicity of actors in a subsystem is to aggregate them into “advocacy coalitions”. These foundations, in turn , affect our dependent variables, belief and policy change, through two critical paths: policy oriented learning and external perturbations” (Sabatier and Weible 2007, p. 189). AC considers the main elements of the public policy process. It takes into account actors (both individuals and groups), institutional factors and the relationship between these elements. As an inter-organisational theory, AC assumes that policymaking is best organised in specialised groups (Sabatier and Weible 2007, p. 192). The assumption that behaviour is affected by the political and economic systems demonstrates institutional considerations.
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  • Fall '13
  • Government, The Land, International Financial Reporting Standards, Financial Accounting Standards Board, Australian Accounting Standards Board, Snow

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