Homework 1.1 and 1.2.docx

Do these differences affect the validity of such taxa

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do these differences affect the validity of such taxa for both evolutionary and cladistic taxonomies? Define taxonomy study of the principles of scientific classification; systemic ordering and naming of organisms Define Paraphyletic the condition that a taxon or other group of organisms contains the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group, but excludes some descendants of that ancestor Define Monophyletic the condition that a taxon or other group of organisms contains the most recent common ancestor of the group and all of the descendants Define Polyphyletic the condition that a taxon or other group of organisms does not contain the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group; implying that it has multiple evolutionary origins; such groups are not valid as formal taxa and are recognized as such only through error define Metazoans multi-cellular animals How do Monophyletic, Paraphyletic, and Polyphyletic taxa differ? How do these differences affect the validity of such taxa for both evolutionary and cladistic taxonomies? Evolutionary taxonimists - mono and para because it looks at morphology Cladistics - mono because it is based on genetics and evolutionary links 1) Who was Linnaeus? When did he live? What was the name of the book he wrote? What was his major contribution to biology? Carolus Linnaeus was a Swedish botanist who lived between 1707 and 1778 during which time he collected and classified organisms. He created an elaborate classification system for both plants and animals. He published a book called Systema Naturae which used morphology to classify specimens into groups. His major contribution to biology was the hierarchical taxonomic ranking system that are still widely used today. 2) List the seven major categories of taxonomic ranks from most inclusive to least inclusive. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
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Zoology HW 1.1 3) What are the five kingdoms distinguished by Whittaker? How does their recognition conflict with the principles of cladistic taxonomy? Monera contained prokaryotes. Protista contained unicellular eukaryotes. Plantae included multicellular photosynthesizing organisms, higher plants, and multicellular algae. Fungi included molds, yeasts, and fungi that obtain food through absorption. Animalia was made up of invertebrates (except protozoa) and vertebrates, most of which ingested their food and digested it internally. Cladistics taxonomy classifies organisms by their evolutionary relationships using comparative morphology only as one of the many evidences for classification. Whittaker's system bases everything morphological similarities, which we now know can be misleading because some structures have evolved separately over time. 4) How would cladistic and evolutionary taxonomists differ in their interpretations of the statement that humans evolved from apes, which evolved from monkeys?
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