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1. Explain the Lowry- Bronsted theory of acids and bases with a suitableexample.2. Explain the Lewis concept of acids and bases with examples.Mentionits advantages also.3. Define pH. Calculate the pH of a solution whose Hydrogen ionconcentration is 1x10 gramions / litre.4. Write a note on indicators.5. Write a note on applications of pH in industries.6. Explain oxidation and reduction by electronic concept.1. The hydrogen ion concentration of a solution is 2x10 gramions/litreCalculate the pH of the solution.2. The hydroxyl ion concentration of a solution is 1x10gram ion/litre.Calculate the pH of the solution.3. The pH of a solution is 4.28.Calculate the hydrogen ion concentrationof the solution.-6-4-922
4. The pH of a solution is 11.5. Calculate the hydrogen ion concentrationof the solution.Try to apply the Lewis theory and explain the following compoundsas acid or base.Al ClZnClTEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING3,223
1.4. CHEMICAL BONDING1.4.1 IntroductionDefinition1.4.2 Types of Bonding(1) Ionic bondExample : Formation of Sodium ChlorideExplanation:When two atoms in a molecule strongly tend to remain together, theyare said to be in chemical bonding with each other. In other words, it issaid that a chemical bond has been established between the two atoms.“Achemical bond may be defined as an attractive force which holdstogether the constituent atoms in a molecule”According to Kossel and G.N.Lewis (1916) who put forward theoctet theory of valency, assumed that all atoms have a tendency toacquire a stable grouping of 2 or 8 valence electrons as the elements inthe zero group (Noble gases). Thus it may be concluded that it is thetendency of the atoms to acquire a stable configuration or to completetheir outermost orbit which is the cause of the chemical combinationbetween them.(I)Ionic bond (or) Electrovalent bond or Polar bond(ii) Covalent bond or Non-Polar bond(iii) Co-ordinate covalent bond or Dative bond(iv) Metallic bond.This type of bond is formed as a result of the complete transfer ofone or more electrons from one atom to other.This bond is generally present in inorganic compoundsThe atomic number of sodium is 11.The electronic configuration is 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s (2,8,1).The electron dot formula is NaSodium has only one electron in its outermost orbital.2261.·Cl. ... .. .24
The atomic number of chlorine is 17.The electronic configuration is 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p (2,8,7)The electron dot formula isSodium has one electron in excess of the stable Neon configuration(2,8).Whilechlorineisoneelectronshortofthestable Argonconfiguration (2,8,8).By transferring one electron to chlorine, sodium acquires a unitpositive charge. The chlorine atom after gaining one electron acquires aunit negative charge.These charged ions are held together by electrostatic force ofattraction and form a neutral molecule of sodium chloride.