Explain the Lowry Bronsted theory of acids and bases with a suitable example 2

Explain the lowry bronsted theory of acids and bases

This preview shows page 34 - 38 out of 276 pages.

1. Explain the Lowry- Bronsted theory of acids and bases with a suitableexample. 2. Explain the Lewis concept of acids and bases with examples.Mentionits advantages also. 3. Define pH. Calculate the pH of a solution whose Hydrogen ionconcentration is 1x10 gramions / litre. 4. Write a note on indicators. 5. Write a note on applications of pH in industries. 6. Explain oxidation and reduction by electronic concept. 1. The hydrogen ion concentration of a solution is 2x10 gramions/litre Calculate the pH of the solution. 2. The hydroxyl ion concentration of a solution is 1x10 gram ion/litre. Calculate the pH of the solution. 3. The pH of a solution is 4.28.Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration of the solution. -6 -4 -9 22
Image of page 34
4. The pH of a solution is 11.5. Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration of the solution. Try to apply the Lewis theory and explain the following compounds as acid or base. Al Cl ZnCl TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING 3, 2 23
Image of page 35
1.4. CHEMICAL BONDING 1.4.1 Introduction Definition 1.4.2 Types of Bonding (1) Ionic bond Example : Formation of Sodium Chloride Explanation: When two atoms in a molecule strongly tend to remain together, they are said to be in chemical bonding with each other. In other words, it is said that a chemical bond has been established between the two atoms. “Achemical bond may be defined as an attractive force which holds together the constituent atoms in a molecule” According to Kossel and G.N.Lewis (1916) who put forward the octet theory of valency, assumed that all atoms have a tendency to acquire a stable grouping of 2 or 8 valence electrons as the elements in the zero group (Noble gases). Thus it may be concluded that it is the tendency of the atoms to acquire a stable configuration or to complete their outermost orbit which is the cause of the chemical combination between them. (I) Ionic bond (or) Electrovalent bond or Polar bond (ii) Covalent bond or Non-Polar bond (iii) Co-ordinate covalent bond or Dative bond (iv) Metallic bond. This type of bond is formed as a result of the complete transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to other. This bond is generally present in inorganic compounds The atomic number of sodium is 11. The electronic configuration is 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s (2,8,1). The electron dot formula is Na Sodium has only one electron in its outermost orbital. 2 2 6 1 . · Cl . . . . . . . 24
Image of page 36
The atomic number of chlorine is 17. The electronic configuration is 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p (2,8,7) The electron dot formula is Sodium has one electron in excess of the stable Neon configuration (2,8). While chlorine is one electron short of the stable Argon configuration (2,8,8). By transferring one electron to chlorine, sodium acquires a unit positive charge. The chlorine atom after gaining one electron acquires a unit negative charge. These charged ions are held together by electrostatic force of attraction and form a neutral molecule of sodium chloride.
Image of page 37
Image of page 38

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture