task by putting a box up where the fan stops – if they have object permanence, then they should know where the fan will stop Some babies saw the event of the fan stopping, others saw an impossible event it continues to go past the box (trap door)Do babies dis-habituate to this impossible event? If they look longer at impossible event, it is object permanence.Results: Nothing of interest happens during the impossible event. But become quite excited by the impossible event. They found it interesting because they found it impossible, and they found it impossible because they had object permanence. Babies have object permanence at 4 1/2 months of age. oEvidence of object permanence at 3.5 monthsHabituates babies to show short or tall carrot pass behind a screen – carrot doesn’t go all the way. Then cut out a little window in both.Possible event – short carrot can’t show in windowImpossible event – tall carrot doesn’t show in window
Impossible event shows confusion for children – more attention to tall carrot that doesn’t show in windowOverall Evaluation of Stage 1More or less accurate picture of infants abilities Only real critique is Piaget’s underestimation oMethodological limitation (tasks were too hard)POST-SENSORIMOTOR INTELLIGENCEOVERVIEW Pre-operational stage (2-7)Concrete Operations stage (7-11)What are Operations? oA special type of schema that provides strategies and rules about objects that make thinking more systematic and efficient. Tells you how to deal with info. oMental operations can be reversed. 8-5=3oMajor difference b/w the 2 stages – younger ones don’t have operations older kids can deal with complex info really wellContrast two stages for best picture of developing abilities STRENGTHS OF PRE-OPERATIONAL THOUGHT: “SYMBOLIC FUNCTION”Symbolic function is the ability to use one thing as a symbol to represent something else – thinking in your headFirst use of mental schemes oInternal problem solving oLanguage use (basically a symbol) Started talking about things that weren’t right in front of them. Indicative of mental representations oSymbolic/pretend play involves mental representations (use broom as horse) open ended products (toys) should be given to children in order to increase they symbolic playabilitiesPretend play is voluntary and directed by the player. Not very effective if it’s imposed by adults or teachers. They should facilitate the play, but not dominate the play.oPretend play is correlated with impulse control – encourages school successWhy is symbolic function so important?oQuickens/improves problem solving, broadens horizons and facilitates social interaction.