13.5 The Organization of the Executive Branch KL - As chief executive, the president both oversees and is assisted by the vast bureaucracy that makes up and manages the executive branch. - This branch consists of four main groups: the White House staff, the Executive Office of the President, the executive departments, and independent agencies. The White House Staff -The White House staff consists of about 400 people. - The most powerful staff member is the chief of staff , who is considered the president's most loyal aide. -Presidents depend on the White House staff to provide them with guidance and advice on a wide range of issues. The chief of staff also serves as a “gatekeeper,” controlling who gets to talk to the president and who does not. Executive Office to the President -The Executive Office of the President (EOP) was created in 1939 by Congress to provide support staff to the president. -The agencies that make up the EOP perform a variety of specialized tasks for the president. The largest, the Office of Management and Budget, helps the president prepare an annual budget proposal to Congress. The Executive Departments -The executive departments make up a third group of organizations in the executive branch. -Each department also contains federal agencies that target more specific policy areas within the department's general focus. -Today there are 15 executive departments.
Independent Agencies -The executive branch also includes dozens of independent agencies that help implement federal policy. These groups are considered independent because they do not fall within executive departments, though they answer directly to the president. These groups go by various names, including agency, commission, administration, authority, and corporation. -Some independent agencies create and enforce regulations. 13.6 Local, State, and Federal Bureaucracies KL -Government at every level depends on a bureaucracy to carry out public policies. Who are Civil Servants and what do they do -Bureaucracies are run by civil servants, or civilian employees working in government agencies. -The work done by civil servants ranges from nursing and photography to engineering and economic analysis. -Civil servants are responsible for providing many of the government services that Americans need and want. What are the Sources of Bureaucratic Power? -For a bureaucracy to be effective, it must have the power it needs to do its job. This power stems from various sources. - Legislative and budgetary support. - Interest group support. -Expertise of bureaucrats. -Longevity or permanence. -Effective leadership. -Citizen demand. Is The Growth of Bureaucracy Out of Control? -Bureaucracy has grown at all levels of government since this country was founded. Much of this growth has occurred since World War II, particularly since the 1960s, as government has provided more services to the American people. -In recent years, the number of federal civilian government employees has leveled off. How have Bureaucracies Affected Our Lives? -Many Americans have a story to tell about a negative experience with a public agency. -A century ago, many Americans lived in filthy slums that bred disease and
worked in dangerous factories with few safety provisions. - Despite frequent complaints about bureaucratic waste and mismanagement, most Americans would be reluctant to give up the benefits that bureaucracy provides.
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- Fall '16
- Craig Zupi
- President of the United States, job of president