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ing, application, replenishment, consumption, and disposal) of natural resources (Roy Choudhury 2015 ; Khan and Islam 2015 ). For instance, a cotton T-shirt generates environmental impacts on these life cycle processes. In collection, cotton cultivation involves the use of fertilizer, pesticides, and water; in processing, to dye and spin cultivated cotton, coal, dyes, and auxiliaries, as well as water and K.E. Lee ( & ) Department of Apparel, Events and Hospitality Management, Iowa State University, 28 Mackay Hall, Ames, IA 50011, USA e-mail: [email protected] © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017 S.S. Muthu (ed.), Sustainability in the Textile Industry , Textile Science and Clothing Technology, DOI 10.1007/978-981-10-2639-3_3 17
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electricity, are used; in application, T-shirt manufacturing requires the use of electricity, detergent, and water; in replenishment, to procure a reorder of T-shirts, collection, processing, and application are repeated; in consumption, end users purchase and wear T-shirt products; and in disposal, end users discard used T-shirts and manufacturers get rid of produced T-shirts or raw material left over (Zhang et al. 2015 ). Hence, in the textile industry, the use of energy, chemicals, and water are major environmental impact generators throughout the life cycle of products. To ensure environmental sustainability, apparel designers should create products based on environmentally and socially responsible design approaches and trends; the supply chain must consider its impacts on society, economy, and environment for their business practices (Adams and Frost 2008 ; Roy Choudhury 2015 ). There are some textile companies that have set environmental sustainability as a priority in their business practices. The Global 100 Most Sustainable Corporations in the World Index released by Corporate Knights, a media and research group in Toronto, consist of select companies in accordance with the scores obtained from four screening tests evaluating 12 key performance indicators of environmental sustainability (e.g., energy and water usage ef fi ciency), as well as social responsi- bility (e.g., employee turnover and leadership diversity) (Kim 2016 ). The 2016 Global 100 included the following companies: in textile companies, Adidas (ranked two) and H&M (ranked fi ve); in the beauty sector, L Or é al (ranked 14) and Unilever (ranked 47); for retailers, Marks & Spencer (ranked 21); and in the luxury sector, the French luxury group Kering, which operates multiple European brands such as Gucci, Saint Laurent, and Balenciaga (ranked 43) (Kim 2016 ). 2 Environmental Impacts of the Textile Industry The textile industry creates one of the most signi fi cant impacts to the global economy and the environment. Global textile industry s annual sales (including the apparel and footwear sectors) are expected to exceed US $2 trillion by 2018 (Marketwired 2014 ). In 2015, the global textile industry made $618 billion annual revenue with a 2 % growth rate and employed 5.8 million people (IBISworld 2015 ). Due to the signi fi cance of the market size, the textile industry is one of the
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