years of its existence Guerra and Lempérière 1998 But nationalism distinct from

Years of its existence guerra and lempérière 1998

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years of its existence) (Guerra and Lempérière 1998 ). But nationalism (distinct from the apparatus of the state), as a nostalgic desire to bring into being a community, would continue to fuel efforts throughout the Americas. In what is today the United States, nineteenth- century Mexican communities in the Southwest were only beginning to turn their hearts to the newly formed Mexican state when U.S. conquest and colonization disrupted and discombobulated those efforts (Z. Vargas 2010 ). The East Coast, on the other hand, received waves of revolutionary expatriates, especially from the Carib- bean, who settled in communities in Philadelphia, New York, and Florida (Vega 1984 ; Poyo 1989 ; Mirabal 2017 ). From there, they created liberal to revolutionary organi- zations, all with an eye to produce change at a variety of levels, from the local to hemispheric. They also produced vibrant print cultures, all writing to and, simultaneously, producing imagined communities that spanned the Hispanic Atlantic world (Lazo 2008 ; Almeida 2011 ; Vo- geley 2011 ; Coronado 2013 ). We see, then, the Ecuador- ian Vicente Rocafuerte in the early nineteenth century, the Cuban José Martí at century’s end, and the Puerto Rican Bernardo Vega in the early twentieth century writing from the U.S. East Coast about the national lib- eration struggles of Ecuador, Cuba, and Puerto Rico, re- spectively, and yet being simultaneously wedded to the liberation of the rest of their Spanish American brethren. It is this affective concept of nationalism that fueled the radical social movements of the 1960 s and 1970 s. If the Spanish American nationalism of the nineteenth cen- tury sought independence from Spain and territorial consolidation of their respective nations, the Chicana/o and Puerto Rican nationalisms of the 1960 s and 1970 s were inspired more by a desire to undo the racial ide- ologies that had denigrated anything and everything Latina/o by paramilitary designs to actually secede from the United States (Klor de Alva 1989 ). This is not to say that they were fruitless. What they sought to accomplish was a complete reversal of racist discourses (which had had very real material consequences) that had debased and deracinated Chicanas/os and Puerto Ricans. Politi- cal and cultural activists celebrated their cultures and advocated self-determination. They organized festivals, political rallies, and all kinds of electoral and equitable- labor campaigns. Thus, in his 1969 “Plan Espiritual de Aztlán” (Valdez and Steiner 1972 , 402 6 ), Alurista vividly brought to life the long-lost mythic Chicana/o homeland of Aztlán, borrowing the concept from the fortuitous midcentury flourishing of scholarship on Mesoamerica. Mainland Puerto Ricans turned to the similarly romantic concept of Borinquen, the name of the island given by its original inhabitants (Klor de Alva 1989 ). They wrote odes to their homelands, producing <i>Keywords for Latina/o Studies</i>, edited by Deborah R. Vargas, et al., New York University Press, 2017. ProQuest Ebook Central, .
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  • Fall '09
  • NIKHILSINGH

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