years of its existence Guerra and Lempérière 1998 But nationalism distinct from

Years of its existence guerra and lempérière 1998

This preview shows page 3 - 4 out of 5 pages.

years of its existence) (Guerra and Lempérière 1998 ). But nationalism (distinct from the apparatus of the state), as a nostalgic desire to bring into being a community, would continue to fuel efforts throughout the Americas. In what is today the United States, nineteenth- century Mexican communities in the Southwest were only beginning to turn their hearts to the newly formed Mexican state when U.S. conquest and colonization disrupted and discombobulated those efforts (Z. Vargas 2010 ). The East Coast, on the other hand, received waves of revolutionary expatriates, especially from the Carib- bean, who settled in communities in Philadelphia, New York, and Florida (Vega 1984 ; Poyo 1989 ; Mirabal 2017 ). From there, they created liberal to revolutionary organi- zations, all with an eye to produce change at a variety of levels, from the local to hemispheric. They also produced vibrant print cultures, all writing to and, simultaneously, producing imagined communities that spanned the Hispanic Atlantic world (Lazo 2008 ; Almeida 2011 ; Vo- geley 2011 ; Coronado 2013 ). We see, then, the Ecuador- ian Vicente Rocafuerte in the early nineteenth century, the Cuban José Martí at century’s end, and the Puerto Rican Bernardo Vega in the early twentieth century writing from the U.S. East Coast about the national lib- eration struggles of Ecuador, Cuba, and Puerto Rico, re- spectively, and yet being simultaneously wedded to the liberation of the rest of their Spanish American brethren. It is this affective concept of nationalism that fueled the radical social movements of the 1960 s and 1970 s. If the Spanish American nationalism of the nineteenth cen- tury sought independence from Spain and territorial consolidation of their respective nations, the Chicana/o and Puerto Rican nationalisms of the 1960 s and 1970 s were inspired more by a desire to undo the racial ide- ologies that had denigrated anything and everything Latina/o by paramilitary designs to actually secede from the United States (Klor de Alva 1989 ). This is not to say that they were fruitless. What they sought to accomplish was a complete reversal of racist discourses (which had had very real material consequences) that had debased and deracinated Chicanas/os and Puerto Ricans. Politi- cal and cultural activists celebrated their cultures and advocated self-determination. They organized festivals, political rallies, and all kinds of electoral and equitable- labor campaigns. Thus, in his 1969 “Plan Espiritual de Aztlán” (Valdez and Steiner 1972 , 402 6 ), Alurista vividly brought to life the long-lost mythic Chicana/o homeland of Aztlán, borrowing the concept from the fortuitous midcentury flourishing of scholarship on Mesoamerica. Mainland Puerto Ricans turned to the similarly romantic concept of Borinquen, the name of the island given by its original inhabitants (Klor de Alva 1989 ). They wrote odes to their homelands, producing <i>Keywords for Latina/o Studies</i>, edited by Deborah R. Vargas, et al., New York University Press, 2017. ProQuest Ebook Central, .
Image of page 3

Subscribe to view the full document.

Image of page 4
  • Fall '09

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask ( soon) You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes