jurafsky&martin_3rdEd_17 (1).pdf

Each article in the timebank corpus has had the

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Each article in the TimeBank corpus has had the temporal expressions and event mentions in them explicitly annotated in the TimeML annotation (Pustejovsky et al., 2003a) . In addition to temporal expressions and events, the TimeML annotation provides temporal links between events and temporal expressions that specify the
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21.5 T EMPLATE F ILLING 371 <TIMEX3 tid="t57" type="DATE" value="1989-10-26" functionInDocument="CREATION_TIME"> 10/26/89 </TIMEX3> Delta Air Lines earnings <EVENT eid="e1" class="OCCURRENCE"> soared </EVENT> 33% to a record in <TIMEX3 tid="t58" type="DATE" value="1989-Q1" anchorTimeID="t57"> the fiscal first quarter </TIMEX3>, <EVENT eid="e3" class="OCCURRENCE">bucking</EVENT> the industry trend toward <EVENT eid="e4" class="OCCURRENCE">declining</EVENT> profits. Figure 21.25 Example from the TimeBank corpus. nature of the relation between them. Consider the following sample sentence and its corresponding markup shown in Fig. 21.25 , selected from one of the TimeBank documents. (21.18) Delta Air Lines earings soared 33% to a record in the fiscal first quarter, bucking the industry trend toward declining profits. As annotated, this text includes three events and two temporal expressions. The events are all in the occurrence class and are given unique identifiers for use in fur- ther annotations. The temporal expressions include the creation time of the article, which serves as the document time, and a single temporal expression within the text. In addition to these annotations, TimeBank provides four links that capture the temporal relations between the events and times in the text, using the Allen relations from Fig. 21.24 . The following are the within-sentence temporal relations annotated for this example. Soaring e 1 is included in the fiscal first quarter t 58 Soaring e 1 is before 1989-10-26 t 57 Soaring e 1 is simultaneous with the bucking e 3 Declining e 4 includes soaring e 1 21.5 Template Filling Many texts contain reports of events, and possibly sequences of events, that often correspond to fairly common, stereotypical situations in the world. These abstract situations or stories, related to what have been called scripts (Schank and Abel- scripts son, 1977) , consist of prototypical sequences of sub-events, participants, and their roles. The strong expectations provided by these scripts can facilitate the proper classification of entities, the assignment of entities into roles and relations, and most critically, the drawing of inferences that fill in things that have been left unsaid. In their simplest form, such scripts can be represented as templates consisting of fixed templates sets of slots that take as values slot-fillers belonging to particular classes. The task of template filling is to find documents that invoke particular scripts and then fill the template filling slots in the associated templates with fillers extracted from the text. These slot-fillers may consist of text segments extracted directly from the text, or they may consist of concepts that have been inferred from text elements through some additional pro- cessing.
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