Socialist principles but rather the development of a

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socialist principles, but rather the development of a Socialism with Chinese characteristics.) 2.5.2 The Law of the People’s Republic of China China still belongs to the socialist legal family, but more recently, it has begun to develop its own brand of socialism to suit its particular needs. China has only been part of the socialist legal family since 1949, but of course its history goes back much further. China's history is of a great civilisation, in many respects far more advanced than that of its European counterparts. That history includes the rules and traditions under which the people were governed. It is possible to set out three broad stages in China's legal history. That of dynastic China: the period up until 1911, when China was ruled by various dynasties; the republic of China from 1912 - 1949 and the People's Republic of China from 1949 to the present. The legal system in China has been influenced by a number of different legal systems. However, it is less likely than elsewhere that remnants of the old influences remain. During the period of the Republic of China (1911 - 1949), numerous laws were drafted, which were closely based on models taken from the Civil system in Europe – in particular, the German and Swiss models. The statutes which were developed included the Civil Code of 1929/31, the Code of Civil Procedure of 1932, and, after 1927, six Codes including: the Regulation of Criminal Procedure, the Regulation of Civil Procedure and a Commercial Code. Pursuant to the legal system created on the formation of the People's Republic of China, the introduction of what are known as the Four Modernisations (Agriculture, Industry, Defence and Science and Technology), China has also introduced a range of laws known collectively as the Economic Law of China. These laws are intended, among other things, to set up a legal framework tol attract foreign investors and promote the achievement of the goals of the Four Modernisations programme. The legal system in China has in the past been defined by western scholars as being bureaucratic in nature. This was primarily due to the fact that the laws or rules by which society operated were formulated and implemented by the Communist Party and were mainly procedural in nature. This means that they mainly dealt with how people were to arrange their affairs and deal with one another, rather than granting people any substantive rights. In keeping with the core tenets of socialist law, the Chinese Communist Party has been the supreme power in China, and its activities have not been subject to review or supervision by any court or tribunal (as the Australian Parliament's legislative activities are subject to review by the High Court). Among the legal reforms that have been introduced in China since 1978 is the introduction of the fourth Constitution (adopted on 4 December, 1982), which was amended in 1988 to add new guarantees regarding private property and the use of land. (The first Constitution was promulgated in 1954, the second in 1975 and the third in 1978). The basic function of the Constitution in the Chinese system is to set out the structure of the State. Most of the
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