-tied to development of super ego-children’s awareness of external genitalia-during phallic stage: gender identification for boys
boys: castration anxiety-what happened to mom’s penis?-Dad is all powerfulGirls: penis envy-girls never fully develop super egoFreud’s Identification Theory-clearly not testable and very biased-but…recognized importance of biological and social environment, was a developmental model.Cognitive Development Theory-learn gender by categorizing objects-gender is a very visible categorySesame Street: plays off natural tendency to categorizeAge 2: can say they are boy or girlAge 6: gender is fixed (a boy is a boy for life)Social Learning Theory-children learn appropriate “gender” behavior through reinforcement, punishment and modeling/imitatingSocializing boys and girls:-at school: the playground-parentsEmotional expression:-girls are better at reading other’s emotions and showing their own emotion-stereotypes effects what we report in crying baby pic (boy or girl)Interactions:-boys: dominance and competitiveness -girls: cooperativeness and intimacyMedia:-sesame street-everybody loves RaymondGirls, boys, and relationships…•Backdrop-this guy is an idiot•Family is a gendered institution
•Division of labor women do more housework and child care•Why?•Identification Theory-Freud’s work on psychosexual stages1) Id—operates on pleasure principle. Responsible for basic drives. All about me, me, me. What makes ME happy.2) Ego—operates on reality principle. Please ID’s drive in realistic ways.3) Super-ego—strives for perfection. Act in socially appropriate ways; controls sense of right and wrong and guilt.-Oral stage—primary conflict: weaning. About 1 ½ yrs.-Anal stage—first battle between ID&Ego. Until age 3-ish-Phallic stagegender identification for buys. Genitals take center stage. Age 3-ish to 6-Latency stageperiod of calm prior to puberty. Ages 6 to puberty-Genital stagepost puberty. Balance between love & workHow do boys/girls learn gender?•Tied to development of superego•Children’s awareness of external genitals•Moms…..don’t have them•Dad is all powerful did Dad take away Mom’s? well then I’m gonna be like Dad so he won’t take away mine that’s how boys know how to be a boy•Penis envygirls never fully develop super-egoIdentification Theory•Clearly not testable and very biased but…recognized importance of biological and social environment. Was a developmental modelCognitive Development Theory•Children learn gender by categorizing object•Gender is a very visible categorySesame Street•Plays off natural tendency to category•Environment treats boys/girls in boyish/girlish waythis is how children know their genders.
•By the age 4, gender is fixed. By 7, they recognize that their genders DON’T changeSocial Learning Theory•Children learn appropriate ‘gender’ behavior through reinforcement, punishment & modeling/imitatingSocializing boys and girls…•Socialization happens everywhere!