tied to development of super ego childrens awareness of external genitalia

Tied to development of super ego childrens awareness

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- tied to development of super ego - children’s awareness of external genitalia - during phallic stage: gender identification for boys
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boys: castration anxiety - what happened to mom’s penis? - Dad is all powerful Girls: penis envy - girls never fully develop super ego Freud’s Identification Theory - clearly not testable and very biased - but…recognized importance of biological and social environment, was a developmental model. Cognitive Development Theory - learn gender by categorizing objects - gender is a very visible category Sesame Street: plays off natural tendency to categorize Age 2: can say they are boy or girl Age 6: gender is fixed (a boy is a boy for life) Social Learning Theory - children learn appropriate “gender” behavior through reinforcement, punishment and modeling/imitating Socializing boys and girls: - at school: the playground - parents Emotional expression: - girls are better at reading other’s emotions and showing their own emotion - stereotypes effects what we report in crying baby pic (boy or girl) Interactions: - boys: dominance and competitiveness - girls: cooperativeness and intimacy Media: - sesame street - everybody loves Raymond Girls, boys, and relationships… Backdrop -this guy is an idiot Family is a gendered institution
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Division of labor women do more housework and child care Why? Identification Theory -Freud’s work on psychosexual stages 1) Id—operates on pleasure principle. Responsible for basic drives. All about me, me, me. What makes ME happy. 2) Ego—operates on reality principle. Please ID’s drive in realistic ways. 3) Super-ego—strives for perfection. Act in socially appropriate ways; controls sense of right and wrong and guilt. -Oral stage—primary conflict: weaning. About 1 ½ yrs. -Anal stage—first battle between ID&Ego. Until age 3-ish -Phallic stage gender identification for buys. Genitals take center stage. Age 3-ish to 6 -Latency stage period of calm prior to puberty. Ages 6 to puberty -Genital stage post puberty. Balance between love & work How do boys/girls learn gender? Tied to development of superego Children’s awareness of external genitals Moms…..don’t have them Dad is all powerful did Dad take away Mom’s? well then I’m gonna be like Dad so he won’t take away mine that’s how boys know how to be a boy Penis envy girls never fully develop super-ego Identification Theory Clearly not testable and very biased but…recognized importance of biological and social environment. Was a developmental model Cognitive Development Theory Children learn gender by categorizing object Gender is a very visible category Sesame Street Plays off natural tendency to category Environment treats boys/girls in boyish/girlish way this is how children know their genders.
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By the age 4, gender is fixed. By 7, they recognize that their genders DON’T change Social Learning Theory Children learn appropriate ‘gender’ behavior through reinforcement, punishment & modeling/imitating Socializing boys and girls… Socialization happens everywhere!
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