at a predictable rate will give you estimates of how long people have been

At a predictable rate will give you estimates of how

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at a predictable rate, will give you estimates of how long people have been there o Linguistic evidence Controversy over the timing of Native American Migrations -Clovis (ca. 10,000-9500 BCE) and Clovis Complex, New Mexico
- Clovis Points, no one questioned Clovis until 70’s. 80’s - Other sites (20,000-12,000 BCE) - Radiocarbon dating - We found some Mummified remains which helps prove new numbers Distribution of late Pleistocene Native American Sites in South America, all are along the coast, Pacific side, wooden boats covered with hides, carried no more than a family, boats went down the coast of south America and around the other side (Atlantic side) Underwater archeology is becoming important Three different migration times All predate Neolithic revolution Columbian Exchange ca. 1500 Europe to the Americas - Plants - Disease - Animals - Native American Ecologies and Societies Native Americans’ Migration - Immunologic systems developed in isolation - No domestic Animals- south America has chickens and guenni pigs - Low population densities (Limited epidemic diseases and disease of the filth - Semi-arctic conditions, it would have taken them awhile to get through the conditions that the diseases would have died out - Relatively limited genetic diversity, so no Native Americans had immunological protection that others lacked. Virtually all of them had not developed the gentic protection and had no defenses Native American Cultures and Societies ca. 1500, Peoples in process - There is no such thing as a traditional culture - Native Americans did have wars - Just before, Native Americans developed a league just before Europeans arrived The Vikings in North America - Iceland to Greenland to Canada Ca. 985 - Disease was not the Vikings’ ally, they did not carry many diseases because of their origin - Right around 1000, earth got a lot colder - Draw back from Canada because of the Native Americans The Skraelings: Inuits and Amerindians - unsuccessful because they did not benefit from disease
- Christopher Columbus - Born in Genoa, Italy - 1492: First voyage across the Atlantic funded by Spain - Vision- took everyone a very long time to figure out that there was no way to Asia through north America The Columbian Exchange: Europe to the Americas - Smallpox, Chicken Pox, Measles, ect. - Epidemiological Boundaries - Immunological Differences - Acquired vs. Genetic Resistance - Enormous Depopulation Smallpox in Central America -Smallpox and pneuonia killed all the Arawak Indians: 1519 -Trade (and Hernando Cortes) brought smallpox to the Aztecs: 1521 -Cortes also paired up with all the Aztecs enemies and they helped defeat them -Central American Indian population estimated at 25 million in 1490, 15 million in 1530 - Death rates left most societies in complete disarray -Disease traveled quickly along trade routes Smallpox in North America -Smallpox is in Michigan and Southern Canada by the late 1520’s -Mortality rates 75 to 90 percent -Decimated the Cherokee, Iroquois, Huron, Catawba and many other nations -Eliminated the Mandan by the 1830’s Hernando De Soto’s Route 1540-1542 - “For the natives they are all neere dead of smallpox so as the Lord hath cleared our title for us all to posess.” European Animals -domesticated therefore very large compared to animals that would be found in North America

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