ch07

Psychology in Action

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this argument, a later study measured the GSR response to a nonsense syllable paired with a digit. In an immediate recall test, those syllables with low arousal value were recalled best. This would seem a straightforward test of the effect of emotional arousal on recall of material; however, when these subjects tried to recall the material a week later, high-arousal pairs were remembered best as would be predicted in the verbal learning literature. As with many of Freud's concepts, experimental testing is limited or impossible. It is a very difficult matter to verify the concept of repression in the laboratory. The anxiety induced is artificial, and there are always alternative explanations. But since many psychotherapists believe that it is the best explanation for many of the emotional problems they see in the clinic, repression will probably remain a popular explanation, no matter what is found in the laboratory. Reference: Gregg, V.H. (1986). Introduction to Human Memory . Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.   K ey T erms Instructor’s Resource Guide Chapter 7            Page   220
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THE NATURE OF MEMORY BIOLOGICAL BASES OF MEMORY chunking (p. 248) Alzheimer’s [ALTS-high-merz] disease(AD) (p. 266) constructive process (p. 244) anterograde amnesia (p. 266) elaborative rehearsal (p. 252) consolidation (p. 266) encoding (p. 244) long-term potentiation (LTP) (p. 263) encoding specificity principle (p. 255) retrograde amnesia (p. 266) episodic memory (p. 251) explicit (declarative) memory (p. 251) implicit (nondeclarative) memory (p. 252) USING PSYCHOLOGY TO IMPROVE levels of processing (p. 252) OUR MEMORY long-term memory (LTM) (p. 249) mnemonic [nih-MON-ik] device (p. 272) maintenance rehearsal (p. 248) memory (p. 244) parallel distributed processing (PDP) (p. 246) priming (p. 255) recall (p. 254) recognition (p. 254) retrieval (p. 244) retrieval cue (p. 254) serial-position effect (p. 254) semantic memory (p. 251) sensory memory (p. 247) short-term memory (STM) (p. 248) storage (p. 244) FORGETTING distributed practice (p. 260) massed practice (p. 260) misinformation effect (p. 260) proactive interference (p. 259) relearning (p. 257) retroactive interference (p. 259) sleeper effect (p. 260) source amnesia (p. 260) tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon(p. 259)     D iscussion Q uestions 1. What are the chances that scientists will develop a safe, effective drug that dramatically improves memory? If such a drug were available, how would it affect education? Would you take the drug? Why or why not? What might be the advantages and disadvantages of such a drug? Instructor’s Resource Guide Chapter 7            Page   221
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2. Ask students if they have a "flashbulb memory" that is especially vivid. Invite them to share this memory. Note the role of emotion in the formation of the memory. Ask them to explain how these memories are formed and why they are so long lasting. Discuss inaccuracies and alterations of these memories. Many students have the misconception that "flashbulb" implies a perfect, photographic memory of the event.
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