20 verifying compliance by states with international

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20Verifying compliance by states with international treaties, including monitoring steps towards national legislation reforms, represents an important indicator. However, the duty of the peace operation is not only to monitor trends, but also to help them become realized. For states coming out of conflict, it may be hard to map indicators related to the factual implementation of services and rights. Existing statistics may be too old and obsolete; national mechanisms to monitor internal performance and social patterns may be dysfunctional; staff capable of disaggregating rough data may not be adequate and trained; technology may not be available.External assessments by the UN, NGOs, and financial and development agencies are important in allocating funds and defining expected accomplishments. However, state officers should be supported in carrying out their own professional assessments and be made responsible for their own statistics. Measurements and evaluations are not una tantum exercises; they should be repeated frequently and should be capable of supporting relevant state activity. Indicators developed at the national level, also encompassing human rights, can include interesting indigenous and cultural aspects possibly ignored by international frameworks.The methodology used and facts gathered should be verifiable and subjected to a process of continuous assessment and reassessment. Political leaders need to provide updated information on the socio-economic situation of their country so as to build their programmes and indicate expected improvements. Such commitments should be applied not only to economic and social rights but also to civil and political rights (e.g. number of civilian casualties by government or non-state actors; number of deaths in detention; number and types of violations committed by police officers; etc.).Peace operations can be effective for the integration of ESCRs in peace processes. They, for example, can ensure that ESCRs are sufficiently integrated in actions aimed at identifying root causes of conflict, preventing new violations, and providing appropriate solutions for a durable peace. A peace operation’s reports and analytical products prepared by the mission Joint Analysis Cells should also address the ESCR situation in the host country. Human rights officers’ peace operations partners – such as police components, Correction Advisory Units and SSR components involved in the reform and rebuilding of national security and law enforcement agencies – need to consider solid interventions in the area of ESCRs. When supporting national authorities on policy making, including housing policies, it is important to ensure conformity with international ESCR standards related to ESCRs. The peace operation also has
19 Ibid.20 Todd Howland, “Peacekeeping and Conformity with Human Rights Law: How MINUSTAH Falls Short in Haiti”, in Peace Operations and Human Rights, Ray Murphy and Katarina Mansson, eds. (London, Routledge, 2008), p. 10.
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