Li Hong Zhang and Yuan Shikai are well educated officials strengthened foreign

Li hong zhang and yuan shikai are well educated

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Li Hong Zhang and Yuan Shikai are well educated officials, strengthened foreign relations and communicationsf.investments in steamboats and telegraphs
g.The harsh realities of the Opium War, the unequal treaties, and the mid-century mass uprisings of the Taiping Rebellion caused Qing courtiers and officials to recognize the need to strengthen China.h.Significance:i.Complexity at which both Chinese and Manchu refused to adapt to Western style modernity ii.failed attempt at modernization, showed China’s failure because of size and diversityiii.contrasted with the successful Meiji Restoration in Japan 14. Empress Dowager Cixi (1861-1908) a.(1905) Inner Court Reform: eliminated the Civil Service Examinationb.weakens Confucian foundation on the state c.Fear of attacks on her throne, she manipulated the succession line to ensure that she still held powerd.Against the reformers Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao, killed all reformers and they had to flee e.effort to create local government and went to 8 diplomatic countries to learn how to modernizef.Significance:i.One of the only empresses to rule China. Despite having her son officially ruling China, she actually held most of the powerii.She changed the rule of succession, appointed emperor rather than the eldest son 15. Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)16. Yuan Shikai

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