Machiavelli also deals with some possible objections

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Machiavelli also deals with some possible objections to his argument about generosity. He discusses examples from history in which princes were known for being generous andprospered. To counter these objections, Machiavelli makes two points. First, he claims that regardless of whether a prince tries to rise to power through generosity or maintainhis position as such, this generosity will bring trouble sooner rather than later. Second, he points out that effective princes who have been generous have done so by giving to their own people what has been taken from defeated foreigners. In the second case, Machiavelli condones such behavior. Indeed, he argues that it is necessary to keep the prince's soldiers happy. However, there is a danger in the prince depending on the spoils of conquest to fuel his reputation for generosity: it will give him a reputation for being what Machiavelli calls rapacious (being prone to robbing, killing, and raping foreigners).Machiavelli discusses the relationship between cruelty, compassion, and the behavior of an effective prince. He returns to Cesare Borgia as an example of effective behavior. Cesare, states Machiavelli, ruled a prosperous and stable domain despite a reputation for cruelty.An effective prince must try to gain a reputation for compassion but also be willing to be cruel when the stability of his domain calls for it. However, even when a situation
requires cruelty, Machiavelli warns that the prince should not act too quickly. Even if a prince has a reputation for cruelty, Machiavelli claims that this will not lead to his downfall.Whereas being cruel to the people is acceptable if it cannot be avoided, Machiavelli claims that being cruel as a military leader is indispensable. Being lenient toward soldiers can lead only to bad consequences, according to Machiavelli. To illustrate this, he gives the contrasting examples of the famous Carthaginian general Hannibal and the famous Roman general Scipio Africanus. Hannibal's troops endured great hardship underhis command because they knew to disobey him meant death. In contrast, Scipio's armies disobeyed and mutinied because they knew that he was hesitant to punish them.The topic of this chapter is to what extent a prince should be honest, and to what extent he should be deceitful. Machiavellicites a myth from ancient Greece to illustrate the characteristics of an effective prince. The story is that famed princes of the ancient world, such as Achilles, were sent to the centaur Chiron to be trained. Centaurs, being half human and half horse, represent the dual nature of people: part human and part beast. The distinctively human part of people's nature is the one that makes them honorable and good, whereas the distinctively bestial part is the one that makes them dishonorable and bad. Hence, an effective prince, who must deal with the world the wayit actually is rather than the way it should be, must be able to be both man and beast.

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