How often should HIV status be checked when on Truvada? Every 3 months Preventive Education How can we Reduce the Risk of Transmission to Health Care Providers? Hand hygiene after touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, or contaminated items immediately after removing gloves and between patient contacts Personal protective equipment (PPE): wear gloves, gown, mask, eye protection, and face shields Soiled patient care equipment: ensure you handle it in a way that it doesn’t transfer
Environmental control by disinfecting frequently Textiles and laundry: prevent transfer of microorganisms Needles and other sharps: do not recap, bend, break, or hand manipulate needles and place in puncture resistant container Patient resuscitation: use mouthpiece, resuscitation bag, and other ventilation devices to prevent contact with mouth and oral secretions Patient placement: single-patient room if they are at risk for transmission Respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette: cover mouth and nose and use tissues and dispose in no-touch receptacle Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) includes taking antiretroviral medicines as soon as possible, but no more than 72 hours (3 days) after possible HIV exposure; two to three drugs are usually prescribed which must be taken for 28 days. What else must occur? (chart 36-6) 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months after exposure testing is required HIV Tests Why are several screening tests are used to diagnose HIV infection? To diagnose HIV infection and to determine the stage and severity of the infection To determine whether an HIV infection is recent or has been ongoing Antibody tests detect antibodies but not HIV itself; antigen and RNA test directly detect HIV Who should be routine screened? Health care workers All people aged 15 to 65 and those older/younger that are at risk What follow-up testing is performed if the initial test result is positive to ensure a correct diagnosis? 1. Antibody differentiation tests : distinguishes HIV-1 from antibodies 2. HIV-1 nucleic acid tests : looks for the virus RNA directly Identify common blood tests used for screening HIV-1/HIV-2 immunoassay: tests for both HIV-1 and antibodies HIV/1-HIV-2 antigen/antibody combination immunoassay: tests for both antibody and virus for both HIV-1 and HIV-2 HIV-1 differentiation assay: differentiates HIV-1 from HIV-2 HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification test: test directly for virus HIV-1 p24 antigen: test directly for virus Are there any other screening tests that should be done? I don’t know
What is the key goal of ART? Suppress HIV replication to a level below which drug-resistant mutations do not emerge o 1: reduce HIV-associated morbidity and prolong the duration and quality of survival o 2: restore and preserve immunologic function o 3: maximally and durably suppress plasma HIV viral load o 4: prevent HIV transmission Treatment of HIV Infection What lab is the major indicator of immune function and prophylaxis for opportunistic
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- Spring '17
- Nursing, Period