Final Study Guides pharm.docx

Ppi proton pump inhibitor most effective drugs for

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PPI (Proton Pump Inhibitor) Most effective drugs for suppressing secretion of gastric acid MOA : Suppresses acid secretion by irreversibly inhibiting gastric H+K+ATPase (enzyme that makes gastric acid until body makes more enzyme then gastric acid secretion is suppressed) Uses : GERD, gastric/duodenal ulcers Edu : take 30 min before eating Adverse effects : HA, GI, pneumonia, fractures, hypomagnesemia Solcrafate MOA: Promotes ulcer healing by creating protective barrier against acid and pepsin (coats ulcer so it can heal) Uses: acute ulcer protection, mucositis and esophagitis in chemo pts
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Adverse effects: constipation Interactions: antacids interfere with effects Edu: does not work as prophylactic H2 Antagonists MOA: block H2 receptors in stomach that secrete gastric acid Use: treatment of NSAID induced ulcer and GERD Adverse effects: antiadrenergic effects, CNS effects, pneumonia, hypotension, dysrhythmias (IV bolus) 26. Why does TB require more than 1 antibiotic? What pt education should be done with Rifampin? Isoniazid? TB should always be treated with 2 or more drugs Rifampin Must take on empty stomach to be effective Don’t drink alcohol or use Tylenol (kills liver) Can cause sweat, urine, saliva and tears to turn a red-orange color (can stain) GI disturbances May cause oral contraceptives to be less effective (use a second form of BC) May need to increase warfarin dose May need to increase doses of HIV medications Educate importance about pt adherence to treatment regimen Isoniazid May notice tingling in fingers and toes (peripheral neuropathy) – vitamin B6 supplements help Do not consume alcohol or take Tylenol (destroys liver) May cause optic neuritis May cause anemia (monitor CBC) Educate importance about pt adherence to treatment regimen 27. What does albuterol and steroids do for asthma? If using albuterol and a steroid inhaler which should the patient use first? Why? Albuterol Beta2 agonist – promotes bronchodilation (relieves bronchospasms and opens airway) Most effective drug for relief of acute bronchospasms
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Quick relief and long-term control Gold standard for asthma attacks Steroids (glucocorticoids) Suppresses inflammation Administered on a fixed schedule (not PRN) Does not work to stop an ongoing attack Bronchodilators should be inhaled 5 minutes prior to glucocorticoids – bronchodilators open the airway and allow more airflow to get medication down to where it needs to go 28. What are signs of albuterol toxicity? Selectivity is lost at high doses… SABAs: tachycardia, tremors and angina by activating Beta1 receptors on the heart LABAs: can increase the risk of asthma-related death, but only when used incorrectly; should be used only by patients taking an inhaled glucocorticoid for long-term control and only if the glucocorticoid has been inadequate by itself Should NEVER be used as a monotherapy to treat asthma Should always be combined with an inhaled glucocorticoid 29. Do inhaled steroids affect the patient systemically?
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