Visokotemperaturno žarenje 100 21236 Homogenizacijsko žarenje 101 21237

Visokotemperaturno žarenje 100 21236

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Visokotemperaturno žarenje ................................................................. 100 2.1.2.3.6. Homogenizacijsko žarenje .................................................................... 101 2.1.2.3.7. Prirodno i umjetno starenje ................................................................... 101 2.2. POSTUPCI POVRŠINSKIH TOPLINSKIH OBRADA ......................................... 103 2.2.1. POSTUPCI DIREKTNOG POVRŠINSKOG KALJENJA .............................. 103 2.2.1.1. Kaljenje plamenom .................................................................................... 104 2.2.1.2. Induktivno (visokofrekventno) kaljenje ..................................................... 105 2.2.2. POSTUPCI BRZOG POVRŠINSKOG KALJENJA ........................................ 106 2.2.2.1. Visokofrekventno impulsno kaljenje ......................................................... 106 2.2.2.2. Kaljenje snopom elektrona ........................................................................ 106 2.2.2.3. Kaljenje plazmom ...................................................................................... 106
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5 2.2.2.4. Kaljenje laserom ........................................................................................ 106 2.2.2.5. Kaljenje kratkim impulsima trenja ............................................................. 106 2.2.2.6. Otvrdnjavanje površine taljenjem .............................................................. 106 2.2.2.7. Otvrdnjavanje kugličarenjem ..................................................................... 107 2.2.3. KEMIJSKO-DIFUZIJSKI POSTUPCI TOPLINSKE OBRADE (bez naknadnog kaljenja) .................................................................................. 107 2.2.3.1. Nitriranje .................................................................................................... 107 2.2.3.1.1. Ionsko nitriranje .................................................................................... 109 2.2.3.2. Boriranje .................................................................................................... 111 2.2.3.3. PVD tehnologija ......................................................................................... 111 2.2.3.3.1. Vrste PVD prevlaka .............................................................................. 112 2.2.4. KEMIJSKO-DIFUZIJSKI POSTUPCI TOPLINSKE OBRADE (s naknadnim kaljenjem) ................................................................................... 114 2.2.4.1. Cementiranje (pougljičavanje + kaljenje) .................................................. 114 2.2.4.1.1. Pougljičavanje u krutom sredstvu ......................................................... 115 2.2.4.1.2. Pougljičavanje u tekućim sredstvima .................................................... 117 2.2.4.1.3. Pougljičavanje u plinovitim sredstvima ................................................ 117 2.2.4.1.4. Kaljenje nakon pougljičavanja .............................................................. 117 2.2.4.2. Kombinirani postupci ................................................................................. 119 2.2.4.2.1. Karbonitriranje na nižim temperaturama - cijaniranje .......................... 119 2.2.4.2.2. Karbonitriranje na srednjim temperaturama ......................................... 119 2.2.4.2.3. Karbonitriranje na visokim temperaturama (780÷860°C) u plinskoj smjesi (CO+H 2 +N 2 ) .............................................................................. 120 2.2.4.2.4. Sulfonitriranje ....................................................................................... 120 2.3. POSTUPCI TOPLINSKE OBRADE OTVRDNJAVANJA I OČVRŠĆIVANJA METALA DOZRIJEVANJEM, POPUŠTANJEM I TERMOMEHANIČKIM OBRADAMA .......................................................................................................... 120 2.3.1. OTVRDNJAVANJE POPUŠTANJEM ( npr. brzorezni čelik HS18 -0-1 ) ........ 121 2.3.2. OČVRŠĆIVANJE TERMOMEHANIČKOM OBRADOM ............................ 122 2.3.3. OČVRŠĆIVANJE DOZRIJEVANJEM ........................................................... 127 3. NERAZORNA ISPITIVANJA .......................................................................................... 131 3.1. PODJELA NERAZORNIH ISPITIVANJA ............................................................ 131 3.1.1. VIZUALNI PREGLED .................................................................................... 131 3.1.2. AKUSTIČKO ISPITIVANJE ........................................................................... 132 3.1.3. TLAČNA PROBA ............................................................................................ 132 3.1.4. ISPITIVANJE PENETRIRAJUĆIM BOJAMA ............................................... 133 3.1.5. ISPITIVANJE MAGNETSKIM ČESTICAMA ............................................... 134 3.1.6. ISPITIVANJE ULTRAZVUKOM (UZV-om) ................................................. 137 3.1.7. RADIOGRAFSKO ISPITIVANJE (RTG) ....................................................... 141 4. KOROZIJA I ZAŠTITA OD KOROZIJE ......................................................................... 147 4.1. DEFINICIJA I EKONOMSKI ZNAČAJ KOROZIJE ............................................ 147 4.2. MEHANIZAM RAZARANJA METALA .............................................................. 147 4.3. VRSTE KOROZIJE ................................................................................................. 149
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6 4.3.1. Kemijska korozija ............................................................................................. 149 4.3.2. Elektrokemijska korozija .................................................................................. 151 4.4. PODJELA KOROZIJE PREMA IZGLEDU ........................................................... 155 4.4.1. Jednolična korozija ........................................................................................... 155 4.4.2. Nejednolična korozija ....................................................................................... 156 4.5. PODJELA KOROZIJE PREMA UTJECAJNIM ČIMBENICIMA ........................ 158 4.5.1. Napetosna korozija ............................................................................................ 158 4.5.2. Korozija zbog zamora materijala ...................................................................... 159 4.5.3. Galvanska korozija metala ................................................................................ 159 4.6. ZAŠTITA METALA OD KOROZIJE .................................................................... 160 4.6.1 METODE ZAŠTITE ......................................................................................... 161 4.6.1.1. Zaštita izborom prikladnog metala ............................................................ 161 4.6.1.2. Zaštita prikladnom toplinskom obradom ................................................... 161 4.6.1.3. Zaštita prikladnim konstrukcijskim oblikovanjem .................................... 161 4.6.1.4. Elektrokemijska zaštita .............................................................................. 163 4.6.1.5. Zaštita utjeca jem na korozivno sredstvo .................................................... 164 4.6.1.6. Zaštita prevlačenjem površine ................................................................... 164 5. TOPLINSKA OBRADA LJEVOVA ŽELJEZA .............................................................. 165 5.1. UVOD ...................................................................................................................... 165 5.1.1. Vrste lijevanog željeza ...................................................................................... 165 5.1.2. Temperaturno područje tran sformacije austenita .............................................. 165 5.1.3. Učinci toplinske obrade .................................................................................... 166 5.2. TOPLINSKA OBRADA SIVOG LIJEVA .............................................................. 166 5.2.1. Žarenje .............................................................................................................. 167 5.2.2. Normalizacija .................................................................................................... 168 5.2.3. Poboljšavanje (kaljenje i visoko popuštanje) .................................................... 168 5.2.4. Austempering .................................................................................................... 170 5.2.5. Martempering .................................................................................................... 170 5.2.6. Kaljenje plamenom ........................................................................................... 171 5.2.7. Indukcijsko kaljenje .......................................................................................... 172 5.2.8. Popuštanje zaostalih naprezanja ........................................................................ 172 5.3. TOPLINSKA OBRADA ŽILAVOG LIJEVA ........................................................
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