Article 2Judiciary Act of 1789, in full1789 Judiciary Act, act establishing the organization of the U.S. federalcourt system, which had been sketched only in general terms in the U.S. Constitution. The actestablished a three-part judiciary—made up ofdistrict courts,circuit courts, and theSupreme Court—and outlined the structure andjurisdictionof each branch.The Judiciary Act of 1789, officially titled “An Act to Establish the Judicial Courts of the United States,”was principally authored by SenatorsOliver EllsworthandWilliam Patersonand signed intolawbyPres.George Washingtonon September 24, 1789. The act’s creators, by essentially all accounts, viewedit as a work in progress. Although indeedamendedthroughout the years, the basic outline it providedhas remained largely intact.The act divided the country into districts with onecourtand one judge in each, along with attorneysresponsible for civil and criminal actions in their districts. The act also created the office ofattorneygeneralof the United States; the attorney general, a member of thecabinet, is appointed bythepresidentand is head of theDepartment of Justice.