Paplau defined anxiety as the initial response to a psychic threat describing 4

Paplau defined anxiety as the initial response to a

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Paplau defined anxiety as the initial response to a psychic threat, describing 4 levels of anxiety: acute, moderate, severe, and panic. Acute anxiety is a positive state of heightened awareness and sharpened senses, allowing the person to learn new behaviors and solve problems. The person can take in all available stimuli (perceptual field). Moderate anxiety involved a decreased perceptual field (focus on immediate task only); the person can learn new behavior or solve problems only with assistance . Another person can redirect the person to Compiled By: Bheru Lal Page 43
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the task. Remember, this is the ideal anxiety state for teaching a client regarding health concerns such as diabetes, as Cathy says so. Severe anxiety involves feelings of dread or terror. The person CANNOT be redirected to a task; he focuses only on scattered details and has physiologic symptoms such as tachycardia, diaphoresis, and chest pain. The client may go to the ER thinking he is having a heart attack. In lecture, Cathy stated that this person can still be “talked down”. The first priority is to move the person away from all stimuli, and then attempt to talk with them to calm down. Panic anxiety can involve loss of rational thought, delusions, hallucinations, and complete physical immobility and muteness. The person my bolt and run aimlessly, often exposing himself and others to injury. Humanistic Theories; Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs. Everyone should know this one. It is outlined on page 56 in your book. He used a pyramid to arrange and illustrate the basic drives or needs to motivate people. The most basic needs, physiologic needs, need to be met first. This includes food, water, shelter, sleep, sexual expression, and freedom of pain. These MUST be met first. The second level involves safety and security needs, which involve protection, security, freedom from harm or threatened deprivation. The third level is love and belonging needs, which include enduring intimacy, friendship, and acceptance. The fourth level involves esteem needs, which includes the need for self- respect and esteem from others. The highest level is self-actualization, the need for beauty, truth, and justice. Few people actually become self-actualized. Remember, traumatic life experiences or compromised health can cause a person to regress to a lower level of motivation. Pavlov: Classic conditioning (Behavior theory) Pavlov believed that behavior can be changed through conditioning with external or environmental conditions or stimuli. Crisis Intervention Maturational crises, sometimes called developmental crises , are predictable events in the normal course of a life, such as leaving home for the first time, getting married, having children, etc.
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  • Spring '14
  • KathleenHassey
  • Psychiatry, Bheru Lal

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