The principles of scientific thinking which includes

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the principles of scientific thinking, which includes making empirical observations, proposing hypotheses to explain those observations, and testing those hypotheses in valid and reliable ways; also refers to the organized body of knowledge that results from scientific study Spontaneous generation An old and incorrect idea that complex life forms could be spontaneously created from nonliving material Strata Layers of sedimentary rocks Synthetic theory of evolution The theory of evolution that fuses Darwin’s concept of natural selection with information from the fields of genetics, mathematics, embryology, paleontology, animal behavior, and other disciplines Theory A step in the scientific method in which a statement is generated on the basis of highly confirmed hypotheses and used to generalize about conditions not yet tested Uniformitarianism Principle that states that physical forces working today to alter the earth were also in force and working in the same way in former times Variable Any property that may be displayed in
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different values Adenine One of the bases found in DNA and RNA; a purine Adenosine triphosphate The main fuel of cells. ATP is manufactured by the mitochondria Alleles An alternative form of a gene Amino acids A type of molecule that forms the basic building block of proteins Atoms A building block of matter Autosomes A chromosome other than a sex chromosome Backcross The process of crossing a hybrid with its homozygous recessive parent Base A subunit of a nucleotide that makes up the DNA and RNA molecules: adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, uracil Blending theory An early and incorrect idea that the inherited characteristics of offspring are intermediate between maternal and paternal genetic characteristics Carbohydrates Organic compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen; include the sugars and starches Cell The smallest unit able to perform all those activities collectively called life. All living organisms are either one cell or composed of several cells Centromere A structure in the chromosome holding the two chromatids together; during cell division, it is the site of attachment for the spindle fibers Chromatids One of the two strands of a replicated chromosome. Two chromatids are joined together by a centromere Chromosomes A body found in the nucleus of the cell containing the hereditary material Codons A sequence of three bases on the DNA molecule that codes a specific amino acid or other genetic function Complementary pairs A set of two nucleotides, each on a different polynucleotide chain, that are attracted to each other by a chemical bond. In DNA, adenine and thymine, and cytosine and guanine, form complementary pairs Crossing-over The phenomenon whereby sections of homologous chromosomes are interchanged during meiosis Cytogenetics The study of the heredity mechanisms within
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the cell Cytology The study of the biology of the cell Cytoplasm Material within the cell between the plasma membrane and the nuclear membrane Cytosine
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