Make one guilty under atavism theory nose ear shapes

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make one guilty under atavism theory; nose, ear shapesoBased on idea that people has reversed to a primitive version of a humanWilliam Sheldon: SomatypesHumans separated into 3 distinct body types (somatypes)oEctomorph: small shoulders, thin, “delicate” frame, sensitive/shy (introvert) personalityoMesomorph: Rectangular shape, athletic, muscular, aggressive, action-oriented, extrovertHave a greater chance at becoming a criminal than the other body typesGreatest amount of criminal engagementsoEndomorph: stocky, softer/rounder, relaxed, jovial, extrovertEugenics Theory (Galton, Davenport, H.H. Goddard)oIdentify individuals with propensity for criminality (“degenerates”) and sterilize to avoid reproductionoBelieved that intelligence was passed on to the next generationoGoverned various policies of sterilization oHH Goddard: Started with WW1 returning veterans -> used IQ tests (questions related to cultural factors) inevitably lower IQ scores -> started sterilization programThe Kallikaks -> compared half-siblings: same fathercrime caused by feeblemindedness/unintelligencePsychoanalysis: (Freud et. al.)Explains types of ways crime is connected to child’s development/upbringingOne of the first people to do talk therapy- talk to patient when they are on the couchId– present at birth (fundamental ideas of person -> instincts/biological desire (hungry, tired, thirsty)Ego– personality separates factfrom fiction; rational thinking part of the selfSuperego– idea of conscience, morality, guilt shame, remorseCrime results due to an over or underdevelopedsuperegooUnderdeveloped – moral part of person underdeveloped, no social skillsoOver developed super ego -> see themselves in a morally high ground Freud: parent-child conflictsPsychological:I.Q. and personality inventories (MMPI, CPI, Colours test)- personality traits Results used to determine crimeLooking at positive and negative personality traitsLook at strengths and weaknesses- but also where some people could be weird Psychopathic:DSM Category -> series of classificationsOthers: antisocial personality disorderoLack of emotion, forethought, empathy in the same way as normaloMass murders, serial killers -> high rate for this disorderIdeal to look at person’s personalityLecture 6: Sociological TheoriesLearning TheoriesHow people learn to become a criminal
Edwin Sutherland: Differential Association TheoryoPrinciples of delinquencyoLearning approach -> delinquent behaviour is a learning behaviour (Tabula rasa)Rejected biological behaviouroSubcultures come from skillsets in which people learn to become criminaloMoral mindset that shapes people to become criminaloExcess of definitions:about what is morally wrong -> more weighing on a person as they grow up -> mother always stress us what is right and wrong Excess of definitions that is favorable to a life of crime -> illegal behaviour becomes a normoVarious types of learn behaviour that takes places:

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