2. 1966, student deferments require good academic standing a. -SDS calls for civil disobedience; counsels students to go abroad 3. Small numbers of returning veterans protest; protest songs popular B. From Protest to Resistance 1. Anti-war demonstrations, protests increase, some become violent a. Some men burn draft cards; some refuse to serve; some flee to Canada C. War Divides the Nation 1. Doves strongly oppose war, believe U.S. should withdraw 2. Hawks favor sending greater forces to win the war 3. 1967 majority of Americans support war, consider protesters disloyal D. Johnson Remains Determined 1. LBJ continues slow escalation, is criticized by both hawks and doves 2. Combat stalemate leads Defense Secretary McNamara to resign Section 4: 1968: A Tumultuous Year An enemy attack in Vietnam, two assassinations, and a chaotic political convention make 1968 an explosive year. I. The Tet Offensive Turns the War A. A Surprise Attack 1. 1968 villagers go to cities to celebrate Tet (Vietnamese new year) 2. Vietcong among crowd attack over 100 towns, 12 U.S. air bases 3. Tet offensive lasts 1 month before U.S., S. Vietnam regain control 4. Westmoreland declares attacks are military defeat for Viet Cong B. Tet Changes Public Opinion 1. Before Tet, most Americans hawks; after Tet, hawks, doves both 40% 2. Mainstream media openly criticizes war 3. LBJ appoints Clark Clifford as new Secretary of Defense a. After studying situation, Clifford concludes war is unwinnable 4. LBJ’s popularity drops; 60% disapprove his handling of the war II. Days of Loss and Rage A. Johnson Withdraws 1. Senator Eugene McCarthy runs for Democratic nomination as dove 2. Senator Robert Kennedy enters race after LBJ’s poor showing in NH 3. LBJ announces will seek peace talks, will not run for reelection B. Violence and Protest Grip the Nation 1. Riots rock over 100 cities after Martin Luther King, Jr. is killed 2. Kennedy wins CA primary; is fatally shot for supporting Israel 3. Major demonstrations on over 100 college campuses III. A Turbulent Race for President A. Turmoil in Chicago 1. Vice-president Hubert Humphrey wins Democratic nomination a. Over 10,000 demonstrators go to Chicago b. Mayor Richard J. Daley mobilizes police, National Guard 2. Protesters try to march to convention; police beat them; rioting
3. Delegates to convention bitterly debate antiwar plank B. Nixon Triumphs 1. Nixon works for party for years, wins 1968 Republican nomination 2. Campaign promises: restore law and order, end war in Vietnam 3. Governor George Wallace is third-party candidate a. Champions segregation, states’ rights; attracts protest-weary whites 4. Nixon wins presidency Section 5: The End of the War and Its Legacy President Nixon institutes his Vietnamization policy, and America’s longest war finally comes to an end.
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