precise. By contrast, sociological propaganda is diffuse, based on a general climate of opinion
operating imperceptibly without the appearance of propaganda. It is the sum of the ways in which
society tries to integrate the maximum number of people into itself, to unify its members’
behaviour according to pattern, and to spread its style of life abroad.
Agitation versus integration propaganda. Agitation propaganda is the most visible kind. It is
usually revolutionary, but it can be used by a government to whip up its people to some very high
level of sacrifice—to go to war or increase productivity, etc. It cannot be kept up for very long.
The usual form of agitation, subversive propaganda is easy to make. Hatred of a particular enemy
is fomented; liberty, bread, and fulfilment are offered as inducements. This propaganda feeds on
itself and does not require the continued use of the mass media. By contrast, integration
propaganda is propaganda of conformity aimed at getting the individual to participate in society
in every way, stabilizing the social body, and unifying and reinforcing it. It seeks a total moulding
of the person in depth.
Vertical versus horizontal propaganda. Vertical propaganda is what people normally think of as
classic propaganda; it occurs in a top to bottom direction, from the leader to the people—Nazi
propaganda is one example. The leader is a technician, a political or religious head who acts from
a position of authority. Such propaganda is conceived in secret enclaves and uses all the technical
methods of mass communication. The masses undergoing this propaganda are seized,
manipulated, and become committed. In a sense, they are like hypnotic subjects. They become
depersonalized, acting from conditioned reflex. They do not act spontaneously, though they may