Precise by contrast sociological propaganda is

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Introduction to Process Technology
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Chapter 2 / Exercise 5
Introduction to Process Technology
Thomas
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precise. By contrast, sociological propaganda is diffuse, based on a general climate of opinion operating imperceptibly without the appearance of propaganda. It is the sum of the ways in which society tries to integrate the maximum number of people into itself, to unify its members’ behaviour according to pattern, and to spread its style of life abroad. 2. Agitation versus integration propaganda. Agitation propaganda is the most visible kind. It is usually revolutionary, but it can be used by a government to whip up its people to some very high level of sacrifice—to go to war or increase productivity, etc. It cannot be kept up for very long. The usual form of agitation, subversive propaganda is easy to make. Hatred of a particular enemy is fomented; liberty, bread, and fulfilment are offered as inducements. This propaganda feeds on itself and does not require the continued use of the mass media. By contrast, integration propaganda is propaganda of conformity aimed at getting the individual to participate in society in every way, stabilizing the social body, and unifying and reinforcing it. It seeks a total moulding of the person in depth. 3. Vertical versus horizontal propaganda. Vertical propaganda is what people normally think of as classic propaganda; it occurs in a top to bottom direction, from the leader to the people—Nazi propaganda is one example. The leader is a technician, a political or religious head who acts from a position of authority. Such propaganda is conceived in secret enclaves and uses all the technical methods of mass communication. The masses undergoing this propaganda are seized, manipulated, and become committed. In a sense, they are like hypnotic subjects. They become depersonalized, acting from conditioned reflex. They do not act spontaneously, though they may
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Introduction to Process Technology
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Chapter 2 / Exercise 5
Introduction to Process Technology
Thomas
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believe they do. They are mechanized, dominated, and passive. By contrast, horizontal propaganda is made within the masses, not top to bottom. The group leader acts as an animator, letting individuals condition each other, but the person who enters the group does so on the basis of information, data, and reasoning that are distorted. Horizontal propaganda works with small groups—about 15 to 20 people. Reaching the masses, therefore, requires a huge organization of group leaders. It is a characteristic of horizontal propaganda that it is not distinguished from education by the participants. This is how Mao could proceed from subversive agitation to integration propaganda. 4. Irrational versus rational propaganda. Once again, irrational propaganda represents what we denote by propaganda in its familiar sense—emotive appeals, myths, symbols, and so on, which are used to influence people. What is novel is Ellul’s characterization of some forms of rational communication as propaganda. Despite appearances, rational and irrational propaganda have much in common. Rational propaganda has the appearance of genuine scientific truth, but it is often mystification. Citations of facts and figures leave the impression of great rationality, but the

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