b Religion divided the Protestant north and the Catholic south and created a

B religion divided the protestant north and the

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b. Religion divided the Protestant north and the Catholic south and created a power vacuum. -Results a. The Peace of Westphalia ended the war with a general European peace. b. The war led to severe depopulation . c. France gained territory. d. The Hapsburgs were forced to accept independence of all of the princes of the Holy Roman Empire. e. Germany was divided into more than 360 states. (number one problem for them) f. The Netherlands and present-day Switzerland won independence. Europe After the Thirty Years’ War Maria Theresa - Hapsburg From Austria Austria and Prussia -Two great empires, Austria and Prussia, rose out of the ashes of the Thirty Years’ War. -Austria a. The Hapsburg kept the title of Holy Roman emperors and expanded their lands. b. Hapsburg monarchs worked hard to unite the empire, which included peoples from many backgrounds and cultures. c. Maria Theresa won popular support and strengthened Hapsburg power by reorganizing the bureaucracy and improving tax collection. -Prussia a. The Hohenzollern family united their lands by taking over the states between them. b. Hohenzollern kings set up an efficient central bureaucracy and reduced the independence of nobles. c. Frederick William I created one of the best armies in Europe. d. Frederick II used the army to strengthen Prussia. -Frederick the great and Peter the Great are both from Russia Peter the Great -Peter the great was committed to a policy of westernization in Russia. However, persuading Russians to change their way of life proved difficult. To impose his will, peter became the most autocratic of Europe’s absolute monarchs. During his reign he: -forced the boyars , or landowning nobles, to serve the state. -imported western technology and culture. -insisted that the boyars shave their beards and wear western-style clothing.
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20 -used autocratic methods to push through social economic reforms. -imposed policies which caused the spread of serfdom. (peasants serve under feudalism) -brought all Russian institutions under his control Expansion Under Peter -Peter created the largest standing army in Europe and set out to extend Russian borders to the west and south. -Peter unsuccessfully fought the Ottomans in an attempt to gain a warm water port for Russia -Peter engaged in a long war with Sweden, and eventually won land along the Baltic Sea. On land won from Sweden, Peter built a magnificent new capital city, St. Petersburg -Peter signed a treaty with Qing Dynasty in China which recognized Russia's right oto lands north of Manchuria -Peter hired a navigator to explore what became known as the Bering Strait between Siberia and Alaska. -Peter the great ( from Russia ) -Expansion of Russia, 1689-1796 Catherine the Great ( of Russia ) -An efficient, energetic empress, who ruled in the tradition of absolute monarchs, Catherine: a. reorganized the provincial government, codified laws, and begana state sponsored education for boys and girls b. embraced and encouraged Western ideas and culture.
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  • Fall '16
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