Hyperventilation is a normal physiologic response to

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systems. Hyperventilation is a normal physiologic response to hypercarbia; hyperventilation may not be possible with decreased functional respiratory reserves. Normal kidneys can sense hypercarbia and begin to reabsorb buffer to normalize pH; however, older adults may lack the functional capacity or have some degree of kidney disease. Normal renal compensation is slow and will often begin in 24 hours, if kidney function is normal. 11. A patient with diabetes presents with profound hyperglycemia. What type of acid-base imbalance does the nurse anticipate may affect the patient? a) Metabolic acidosis b) Metabolic alkalosis c) Respiratory acidosis d) Respiratory alkalosis a) Metabolic acidosis -Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur in cases of uncontrolled hyperglycemia. This condition lead to acid accumulation, which causes metabolic acidosis. Respiratory acidosis is typically associated with chronic pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respiratory alkalosis occurs in cases of hyperventilation; this condition leads to a decreased amount of acid in the blood and an elevated pH. Metabolic alkalosis occurs with the loss of acid and causes an elevated (alkalotic) pH. 12. When evaluating a patient arterial blood gases (ABGs) the nurse determines there is an increase in the anion gap. What condition does the nurse interpret this to mean for the patient? a) Metabolic acidosis -The anion gap increases in patients with metabolic acidosis due to increase in the concentration of acid. Metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, and respiratory alkalosis do not increase the anion gap.
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13. A nurse working in the emergency department is taking care of a patient with respiratory alkalosis. Which statements would be appropriate for the nurse to give as an explanation of the cause of this imbalance to the patient and family? Select all that apply. b) "Hyperventilation can occur without any physiologic need from pain or anxiety." c) "This imbalance can be caused by hyperventilation, which can occur from fevers." d) "The primary cause is hypoxemia from acute pulmonary disorders, such as pneumonia." -Respiratory alkalosis is primarily caused by hypoxemia related to pulmonary disorders that prevent appropriate gas exchange. Such examples of pulmonary disorders include pulmonary embolism or pneumonia. Hyperventilation decreases the level of CO2 in the blood; this condition can lead to respiratory alkalosis. Hyperventilation can occur with or without physiologic need from fevers, pain, or anxiety. Hypercarbia is an increase in CO2 in the blood, which is not associated with hyperventilation or hypoxemia. Some central nervous
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  • Summer '18
  • NONE
  • pH, Bicarbonate

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