Psychological absence means that the learner is bodily present in class but mentally he is far away. This can be observed if the learner is looking outside the window, passing notes to others in the class, is staring vacantly, fidgeting, or day dreaming Show of misconduct. The problematic child is likely to be involved in misbehaviour, for example i) Noise making ii) Aggression iii) Defiance iv) Use of profane language or v) Basically acting tough. Stealing . Learners will engage in stealing for various reasons: Sometimes they want to get revenge or They wish to vent hostile feelings towards parents A child may steal due to lack of respect for other people s property. There are children who steal without an apparent good reason. This may happen when a child has problems that are 128
129 psychological in nature. In this case a child will steal in order to fulfil a psychological deficit with material things. Lying . This refers to twisting or falsifying information for selfish motives. Children tell lies In order to escape the consequences of punishment or to get attention. Also they tell lies in order to reduce anxiety or Even to get something they want. Cheating . Learners will cheat When a task is too difficult and particularly when parents and teachers have set standards that the child cannot attain. The child will also cheat in order to avoid failure The cheating child may also be the one who feels both inadequate and inferior. Truancy . The truant child stays away from school without the knowledge of the parents. He may go fishing, movie watching or just any other activity that keeps him away from school. A child will become truant if school is threatening. For example a learner who is being bullied or one who is performing poorly in school will be truant. Also the learner who has neither found love at home nor at school will develop a strong dislike for school and can turn to truancy. Activity i) Try and list all the methods teachers use to deal with inappropriate behaviour Types of punishments 129
130 Other methods ii) From your observations do these methods succeed in eliminating undesirable behaviour? iii) Try to suggest reasons for your answer Methods of Behaviour Change Punishment. In their effort to maintain order in the classroom, teachers use many methods of behaviour change. Among them punishments rank very high. Punishment is a form of aversive control of behaviour. Aversive means unpleasant, noxious, or painful. Students can be punished through the following ways: A teacher could administer an aversive stimulus like canning, or kneeling A teacher could also remove an individual from a reinforcing situation e.g., removing a student from class also called timeout.
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- Spring '16