Question 3 a the pre 1880 waves of immigrants to the

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the construction of brick and steel skyscrapers in downtown city districts. Question 3 a. The pre-1880 waves of immigrants to the United States had come from the British Isles and western Europe, principally Germany and Scandinavia, and they were generally Protestant, except for the Irish Catholic and many Catholic Germans. The so-called New Immigrants arrived from southern and eastern Europe and included Italians, Croats, Slovaks, Greeks, and Poles. Many of these New Immigrants worshipped in orthodox churches or synagogues instead of Protestant churches. b. Many of these New Immigrants attempted to preserve their Old World cultural traditions by building and worshipping in ethnically-oriented churches and synagogues, expanding Catholic parochial schools, establishing Hebrew schools, producing foreign-language newspapers, developing kosher food stores and Yiddish theaters, and maintaining Greek restaurants and Italian social clubs. c. These New Immigrants were subjected to employment discrimination, hostility from trade unions, violent personal attacks, religious tests for political office, and Congressional legislation restricting certain undesirable immigrant sub-groups such as anarchists, paupers, criminals, and contract laborers. Trade unions excoriated some immigrant workers for agreeing to work for substandard wages and promoting radical political doctrines, such as socialism, communism, and anarchism. Nativist organizations, such as the American Protective Association (APA), urged Protestant Americans to vote against all Catholic candidates for office because of their religious beliefs and not to hire Catholic workers. d. Correct answer. These New Immigrants made no efforts to convert Protestant Americans to Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or Judaism. e. Many Russian Jewish immigrants came to the United States as a result of highly organized, government-sanctioned deadly persecutions organized against them by government officials and supported by mobs of Russian citizens. Question 4 a. The national government, during the 1880 to 1900 era, provided a negligible amount of grant money to help urban political bosses and their political machines address the social and economic needs of urban immigrants. b. Correct answer. Big city political bosses and their political machines provided jobs and social services to many urban immigrants in exchange for electoral political support, which permitted these New Immigrants to raise a family, earn a livelihood, and escape abject poverty. c. State governments did not provide significant amounts of public funds for the development of social services and public housing for needy immigrants living in the cities.
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d. Urban political bosses were virulently opposed to any political ethics or electoral reform legislation that might be utilized to dilute the commanding political power and influence of their political machines.
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