Cells recognize antigen and eat it phagocytosis and

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cells recognize antigen and eat it (phagocytosis) and fdcs recognize antigens and hold them there. So their main function is to capture antigens in immune complexes? So that these antigens can be recognized by B-cells. So they’re antigen presenting cells or not quite? 32) Explain what is somatic hypermutation, affinity maturation and isotype/class switching in the context of B cell activation. Where do these process take place? Somatic hypermutation generally involves individual point mutations that change only a single amino acid. Somatic hypermutation is normally restricted to B-cells that are proliferating in germinal centers. When a somatic-hypermutation improves the affinity of a B-cell-receptor for a specific antigen, they cells are effeciently selected and expanded. Thus the affinity and specificity of positively selected B-cells are continually refined during the germinal center response. This process is known affinity maturation a biological mechanism that changes a B cell 's production of immunoglobulin (antibodies) from one type to another, such as from the isotype IgM to the isotype IgG The Dark-Zone of the Germinal-center, during its high-proliferation 1st somatic hypermutation 2nd class-switching . Affinity maturation: light zone of germinal center Isotype switching happens during B-cell proliferation /differentiation in the germinal center within lymph nodes 33) What are mechanism/events that drive class switching in immunoglobulins? Th2 cells can drive class switching TH2-cells activate B-cells and induce class-switching, producing high levels of neutralizing antibodies IgG, IgA or IgE in Mast-cell activation.
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34) Explain the functional and spatial distribution differences of all major classes of human Immunoglobulins. - Differences in length of the heavy chain C region. –Differences in location of the disulfide bond. –Presence or absence of the hinge region. –Differences in the distribution of N-linked carbohydrates groups. IgG most abundant in the blood IgG: - 2 disulfide bonds – Hinge IgA: - 1 disulfide - Hinge IgM: - No disulfide bond – No Hinge IgE: - No disulfide – No Hinge IgD: - 1 disulfide – Hinge IgA: principal antibody in secretions along the epithelium lining of intestinal and respiratory tracts, as well as on the skin. IgA mainly works as a neutralizer . IgM is mainly found in the blood and lymph. IgM helps in the activation of the Complement- System, and is in low-abundance in the body. All Naïve b-cells express IgD & IgM Primary Response: Naive-B-cells express low-affinity IgM and IgD . Secondary Response: Memory-cells secrete high-affinity IgG, IgA and IgE . Like all immunoglobulin isotypes , human IgD and IgA1 are glycoproteins , containing N-linked carbohydrates on their heavy (H) 1 chains DON’T HAVE TO KNOW THIS?? Went a little too far in reading Memory Lymphocytes 35) Explain what are the molecular and functional changes that occur in memory B cells in comparison to naive B cells?
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