Why has a flawed term thrived some believe because it

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Why has a flawed term thrived? Some believe because it acknowledges the relative power of those who are likely to commit white-collar as opposed to normal offenses For example, why are street offenses part of the criminal code while deviant white-collar behavior is encoded in civil or administrative statutes? The social status aspect still remains very much part of the concept
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Systems
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Clinard and Quinney Perhaps the biggest advancement in WCC research: Criminal Behavior Systems (1967) Classified crime based on the type of behavior Coined the term “corporate crime” Occupational Crime Corporate crime
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Corporate and Organizational Crime Illegal and/or harmful acts committed with the support and encouragement of the corporation [formal organization] and intended at least in part to advance the goals of that corporation [organization] Modern typologies usually generalize this to organizational crime which also contains other varieties of crime
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Occupational crime Illegal and/or harmful acts committed by an individual or a group of individuals during the course of legitimate employment exclusively for personal gain Focusing on the occupational context, limiting the focus on social status
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Interpretation Both are types of the larger body of white-collar crime It is best to consider occupational and organizational the two extremes of a continuum as there can be considerable overlap between the two
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In your text Payne discusses several types crime that have a close relationship with white-collar crime A systems perspective We will discuss Occupational crime Corporate crime Governmental crime State-corporate crime
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White-Collar Offenders
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Typology to Criminology Prior to the 1980s little was known about WC offenders Most information came from highly publicized case studies of the most egregious instances Two major data collection efforts funded by NIJ took place examining individuals convicted in federal court for a white-collar offense
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Conventional vs. WCC Both types of crime cover a broad range of offenders and offenses Some generalizations about differences might be possible WCC includes various types of occupational and corporate crime, including types of fraud Conventional crime includes most index crimes
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Although… Based on Sutherland’s definition, it is much more likely, maybe even expected, that white-collar offenders will be white upper-class males than lower-class, minorities, or female The definition confounds these elements However, legal definitions of virtually all crime consider characteristics of the offender
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Age Young vs. middle age/older Age-crime curve Most who commit conventional crime are under 25; peak offending age = late teens By Sutherland’s definition, white-collar offenders are expected to be older Does juvenile employment count?
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