Figure 22.6: John T. Scopes (right) pictured with his chief legal representative in the landmark “Monkey Trial” of 1925, Dr. John R. Neal, Jr. Though largely overshadowed by Clarence Darrow, another member of Scopes’ legal defense team, Neal had a checkered career of his own, including his 1923 dismissal from the University of Tennessee’s law school, supposedly for defending a colleague’s right to teach evolution.  One of the first events to receive national media coverage via radio, the city of Dayton assumed a carnival-like atmosphere as people descended upon the community, attracted to the unfolding drama in the stiflingly warm local courthouse. When the temperature became too unbearable, the presiding judge would relocate the trial outside,
to the delight of those unable to secure a seat in the overcrowded courtroom. Champions of evolution and strict adherents of the Bible came to show their support for both sides of the hearing, which put the concept on evolution on trial along with Scopes. Americans across the country, as they followed the goings-on in Tennessee, found themselves confronted by an issue many had never considered: Where should they place their faith, in God or science? The trial reached its crescendo when Darrow opted to call Bryan as a witness on the stand so that he might ask him questions regarding the age of the earth and his opinions of Adam and Eve. Darrow's rigorous, day-long, questioning culminated in a frustrated Bryan pounding his fist, refusing to step down and yelling "I am simply trying to protect the word of God against the greatest atheist or agnostic in the United States!" After eight days of debate the hearing ended with a guilty verdict for Scopes and the imposition of a $100 fine, an outcome that surprised few. But it laid bare the opposing worldviews that increasingly divided America and would continue to do so. Nativism and the Return of the Ku Klux Klan The changing demographics in America during the late 1800s and into the 1900s did much to encourage the return of the Ku Klux Klan in 1915 after more than thirty years of dormancy. First reappearing in Georgia, the reborn Klan spread across the entire country, no longer a Southern phenomenon. Taking as its symbols the Christian cross and the American flag, new Klan chapters in Midwestern states such as Ohio and Indiana proved as popular and committed as their Southern counterparts. Foreign-born Catholics and Jews, many of them with leftist views, and African Americans migrating out of the South caused distress among native-born, white Protestants who feared the loss of their perceived sense of nativism or “Americanism.” The 1915 release of the racist and revisionist historical epic motion picture, The Birth of a Nation , directed by D. W.
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