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Qauntitate igm igg iga 2 tests radio immundiffusion

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Qauntitate IgM, IgG, IgA 2 tests Radio immundiffusion- RID or Nephlometry Usually don’t qauntitate IgD
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IgE quantitation- enzyme immunoassay test but usually do individual allergies. ANTIGENS CHAPTER 3 ****Several Things affect the immune response antigens are the causative agent. ***What causes people to have different allergies or immune response? Everyone’s immune system is a little different. 1. Define the following terms: Antigen— refers to a substance that reacts with antibody or sensitized T cells but may not be able to evoke an immune response in the first place . Immunogen— mounts an immune response. Same thing as an antigen. (macromolecules capable of triggering an adaptive immune response by inducing the formation of antibodies or sensitized T cells in an immunocompetent host. Immunogens can then specifically react with such antibodies or sensitized T cells.) *** All immunogens are antigens but not all antigens are immunogens pg. 40 Antigenic determinant— is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system , specifically by antibodies , B cells , or T cells (also called an epitope) Epitope— portion of the antigen to which the person makes an immune response. 4 to 6 amino acids, 5 to 7 carbohydrates make up antigen or antigenic determinant. A polypeptide can have more than one epitope. *** There are 2 types of epitopes . Confirmational epitope —chains overlap each other Linear Epitope-- Hapten— antigen with a molecular weight less than 10,000 doultons. The antigen attaches to a carrier protein and is large enough to trigger an immune response. ****the molecular weight of the antigen should be greater than 10,000 d to initiate immune response. If is less than 10,000 d it can’t initiate immune response. ****The more complex the antigen the bigger the specific response. ****The more foreign the antigen the bigger the specific response. ****The ability to be processed—usually a phagocytic process to mount a specific response. ****Can’t mount a specific response to joint or valve replacement but can mount a specific response to organ transplant. ****Lipids and mucleic acid are extrememly non-antigenic, can’t make antibodies to DNA ****Extremely rare for lipids to have an immune response. Some bacterias have a lipid capsule around it.
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Adjuvant— Substances administered along with antigens to create a bigger immune response. The immune system keeps antigen in area long enough to get immune response when adjuvant is used. 2. List the 5 factors of antigenicity Molecular Weight Chemical Composition Foreigness Complexity Route of administration Dose 3. Explain how the factors of antigenicity relate to antibody formation. Size --the molecular weight of the antigen should be greater than 10,000 d to initiate immune response. If is less than 10,000 d it can’t initiate immune response.
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