Temporal changes in flower function can promote

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Temporal changes in flower function can promote outcrossing Nectar guides direct pollinators to floral reward Nectar guides and other floral features direct pollinator Blue flowers are not exclusively “bee” flowers; floral availability for any pollinator species may vary annually in abundance White flowers are often moth pollinated; moths active at dusk Carrion plant: an example of fly-pollinated species Red and tubular, mostly hummingbird pollinated But bees often visit red, tubular flowers also; the flowers (tubes) here are smaller Complicated flowers require learning by the pollinator, results in floral constancy- pollinator continues to forage at the same plant species Some species are visited by a wide array of pollinators Yuccas are mostly pollinated by yucca moths Pollen of milkweeds dispersed in pollinia Bird pollinated Protea ; pollinated by perching sunbirds Hidden inflorescence, drab color, some odor, abundant nectar Some Protea species have hidden flowers with strong odor o Non flying mammals pollinate these Protea species o So do bees Some species change color or odor with age or after pollinator visits Some flowers present no reward, but claim they do Some orchids look and smell like female wasps, the pollination system is called pseudocopulation
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