BIOL
Bio Mid Term 1 Study Notes.docx

The enzyme into a low affinity state releasing the

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the enzyme into a low affinity state, releasing the substrate Allosteric site: site on the enzyme where the non-competitive inhibitor binds to Feedback inhibition: the regulation of a substance’s production. If the substance is scarce, the enzyme will be signaled to produce more of it, if there is too much, the enzyme will be signaled to stop via. Inhibitors. 1. Metabolism is the total chemical reactions that occur in the body (anabolic and catabolic reactions) 2. Redox reactions are important in the cell because they provide free energy to used throughout the cell. The release of electrons by oxidization rxns release energy. This energy can be used to carry out the normal cellular processes that would require energy in order to function. 3. ATP is a major source of energy for the body’s cellular processes. As the reaction proceeds, the molecule ADP is produced as a result of an inorganic
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phosphate bond being broken off. ADP is of a lower energy state than that of ATP and therefore the products are of a lower energy state. Because there must be a balance in both sides of the reaction, energy is released. 4. Anabolic pathway: when smaller molecules come together to form a larger molecule; requires energy in order to occur; occurs when trying to develop ie. Building muscles a. Catabolic pathway: when larger molecules form smaller molecules; releases energy; occurs when digesting food in order to receive potential energy and nutrients 5. ATP – Adenosine Triphosphate a. Composed of the nucleotide adenine, three inorganic phosphate groups, and ribose 6. ATP  Hydrolysis ADP + P i + Energy 7. Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions important for organisms by lowering activation energy. Enzymes do this through: a. Changing the substrate shape to mimic the transition state b. Applying charges to stimulate the reaction which would promote catalysis c. Bringing the molecules closer together 8. Factors that affect enzyme activity: temperature and pH. Most enzymes function properly at the body temperature at 30 degrees Celsius. Between 30-40 degrees, the enzyme is able to speed the chemical reaction up, with the reaction rate doubling after a 10 degree rise in temp. After 40 degrees, the enzyme becomes denatured and is unable to work properly. Each pH has its own optimal pH range in which it works, if the pH is changed, the enzyme is unable to function properly. Typical pH for enzymes is 7, however, certain enzymes ie. Pepsin in stomach require an acid pH. As these pH’s change, the recreation rate decreases due to an alteration of charged groups in the enzyme. 9. Reaction rates and enzyme activity can be regulated through the inhibition. Feedback inhibition is the process by which the production of a substance is closely monitored. If there is too much of a product being made, an inhibitor is used to stop further production of that product.
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