increase the success of marketing campaigns, add value to the brand, and/or product or service, and enhance customer service. Amazon re-branded into 'serving the world's largest engaged online community',the World Federation of Advertisers (WFA) has created a 'Blueprint for Consumer-Centric Holistic Measurement' and the Association of National Advertisers (ANA), American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA) and the Advertising Research Foundation (ARF), have put together the 'Engagement Steering Committee' to work on the customer engagement metric.Online customer engagementAlthough offline customer engagement predates online, the latter is a qualitatively different socialphenomenon unlike any offline customer engagement that social theorists or marketers recognize. In the past, customer engagement has been generated irresolutely through television,radio, media, outdoor advertising, and various other touchpointsideally during peak and/or high trafficked allocations. However, the only conclusive results of campaigns were sales and/or return on investment figures. The widespread adoption of the internet during the late 1990s has enhanced the processes of customer engagement, in particular, the way in which it can now be measured in different ways on different levels of engagement. It is a recent social phenomenonwhere people engage online in communities that do not necessarily revolve arounda particular product, but serve as meeting or networking places. This online engagement has brought about both the empowerment of consumers and the opportunity for businesses to engage with their target customers online. A 2011 market analysis revealed that 80% of online customers, after reading negative online reviews, report making alternate purchasing decisions, while 87% of consumers said a favorable review has confirmed their decision to go through with a purchase.The concept and practice of online customer engagement enables organisations to respond to the fundamental changes in customer behaviour that the internet has brought about,as well as to the increasing ineffectiveness of the traditional 'interrupt and repeat', broadcast model of advertising. Due to the fragmentation and specialisation of media and audiences, as well as the proliferation of community- and user generated content, businesses are increasingly losing the power to dictate the communications agenda. Simultaneously, lower switching costs, the geographical widening of the market and the vast choice of content, services and products available online have weakened customer loyalty. Enhancing customers' firm- and market- related expertise has been shown to engage customers,strengthen their loyalty,and emotionally tie them more closely to a firm.