ValidityRelationships With Other MeasuresFactor-analytic studies (Fleishman & Ellison, 1962; Fleishman & Hempel, 1954) have shown that the Purdue Pegboard Test loads on a finger dexterity factor defined as “the ability to make rapid, skillful, controlled manipulative movements of small objects, where the fingers are primarily involved.” However, the assembly test appears to measure something in addition to finger dexterity and also loads on a manual dexterity factor defined as “the ability to make skillful, controlled arm-hand manipulations of larger objects.” Strenge et al. (2002) also highlighted the importance of attention as a key factor on the assembly and nondominant hand tasks.The literature suggests that there is more than one type of dexterity. Pactoranalytic findings suggest that pegboard dexterity and finger tapping measure independent dimensions of manual proficiency (Fleishman & Hempel, 1954; Stanford & Barratt, 1996). However, when between
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Model 32020A User’s Manual[email protected]. 11-hand asymmetry is considered, Purdue peg-placement correlates highly (.78) in normal adults with finger tapping, a task that requires independent, precise finger movements, suggesting that both tasks depend at least in part on a common neural substrate; namely, asymmetry in the corticospinal system (Triggs et al., 2000). Laterality indices derived from the Purdue Pegboard Test also correlates moderately well (.52 to .68) with those from other manual dexterity tasks (e.g., Annett’s peg-moving task; Doyen & Carlier, 2002). Correlations between hand preference and relative manual proficiency on the Purdue Pegboard Test are moderately high, about .70 (Triggs et al., 2000). However, left-handers have smaller mean between-hand discrepancy scores in Purdue performance (Judge & Stirling, 2003; Verdino & Dingman, 1998) and much greater variance in performance than right-handed individuals, suggesting that preference may not identify peg-placement proficiency within a left-handed group (Verdino & Dingman, 1998). Left-handers, however, perform more proficiently than right-handers on the assembly component, a task that requires timely coordination of both hands (Judge & Stirling, 2003).This advantage seems to depend on a more proficient use of the nonpreferred hand in left-handers than in right-handers (Judge & Stirling, 2003).Clinical FindingsImpairment has been noted in a variety of conditions. For example, Schmidt et al. (1993) reported that normal individuals without neuropsychiatric disorder or other disease, who showed MRI white matter hyperintensities (WMH), performed worse on the Assemblies subtest than did patients without WMH. Impaired peg placement (particularly on the bilateral condition) was observed in patients with Parkinson’s disease (Brown et al., I993; Pernat et al., 1996) with improvement noted after pallidotomy (Uitti et al., 1997). Impairment also occurs in progressive supranuclear palsy (Zakzanis et al., 1998), Huntington’s (Brown et al., 1993), cerebellar disease (Brown et al., 1993) and schizophrenia (Flyckt et al., 1999; Roy et al., 2003).
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