Kinetic energy is associated with motion and includes thermal energy associated

Kinetic energy is associated with motion and includes

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Kinetic energy is associated with motion and includes thermal energy associated with random motion of atoms or molecules. Heat is thermal energy in transfer from one object to another. Potential energy is related to the location or structure of matter and includes chemical energy possessed by a molecule due to its structure. o The first law of thermodynamics , conservation of energy, states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred or transformed. The second law of thermodynamics states that spontaneous processes , those requiring no outside input of energy, increase the entropy (molecular disorder) of the universe. 8.2: o A living system’s free energy is energy that can do work under cellular conditions. The change is free energy ( ∆G) during a biological process is related directly to enthalpy change (∆H) and to the change in entropy (∆S): ∆G=∆H-T∆S. Organisms live at the expense of free energy. A spontaneous process, free energy input; during such a process, free energy decreases and the stability of a system increases. At maximum stability, the system is at equilibrium and cannot do work. o In an exergonic (spontaneous) chemical reaction, the products have less free energy than the reactants (-∆G). Endergonic (nonspontaneous) reactions require an input of energy (+∆G). The addition of starting materials and the removal of end products prevent metabolism from reaching equilibrium.
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