However the unique characteristic of popular culture events is that they are

However the unique characteristic of popular culture

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However the unique characteristic of popular culture events is that they are not only affected by relevant crises, but they can also be extensively used for crisis recovery, even long after the crisis event itself. For example, 16 years after the 9/11 terrorist strikes in the United States (the strikes were held in 2001), several popular culture events were organised for the commemoration of the victims. These events included the ‘Tribute in Light’ concerning the illumination of the New York City skyline, the gathering at the 9/11 Memorial, and the public service programmes and commemoration pop culture events held throughout the country (Greenwald, 2017). To proceed even further, several events, with special reference to mega-events, express current cultural aspects and embed popular culture, even if they are not directly considered as popular culture events. For example, the contemporary Olympic Games are part of the current world culture reflecting countless popular culture aspects, creating idols and sports- stars, and formulating globalised cultural behaviours (Pop, 2013), since they are extensively covered and promoted by all kinds of media (Pappas, 2014). The Olympics are also considered as major contributors that influence tourism growth (Fourie & Gallego, 2011), have substantial impact on destination development and branding (Qu et al., 2011) and promote contemporary cultural activities (Dyer et al., 2007). Due to their media explosion and their worldwide communication impact, terrorist incidents have repeatedly occurred in Olympics. The first one was held in 1972 during Munich Olympics, with the shooting of Israeli athletes in the Olympic village. This incident has established the relationship between
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7 tourism and terrorism (Pappas, 2010) and let international tourists being actually aware of this relationship (Lepp & Gibson 2003). Another terrorist strike was during 1996 in Atlanta at the Centennial Olympic park during the Games. Media coverage of the bombing had exploded, directly affecting the legacy of the games and the destination image. As a result, the Olympic officials and city leaders said that the bombing had turned six years of planning into an instant nightmare (Sack, 1996). These vulnerability aspects highlight the importance of appropriate crisis marketing and communications strategies in popular culture events for the minimisation of the negative impacts of both, events and destinations. Crisis Management Communications The importance of crisis management in tourism creates the necessity to develop and share good practice examples able to maintain enterprising and destination success, and provide guidance for adequate marketing communications during crisis (Page et al., 2010). Incorporating the formulation of crisis management communications, it is essential to build on both, external and internal marketing environment.
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