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The purpose of job analysis is to collect accurate information about what a job requires (i.e., knowledge, skills, and abilities), what it entails (activities), and what it contributes (outputs). This information is often recorded in a job description. From the job description, recruitment plans are developed, selection criteria are determined, and compensation is decided.Employers often turn to workers for information to inform job analysis. Workers can be a useful source of such information since they are most likely to know what a job actually entails. oRemember, workers may not be entirely forthcoming about what they do and can do asworker knowledge is a form of power.oWorkers know that job analysis is part of an employer’s broad strategy to maximize its return on each worker hired.oWorkers may choose to obfuscate what they do (or can do) to maintain the existing wage-effort bargainIn the 19th century, Frederick Taylor sought to wrestle knowledge from skilled workers about how products were manufactured. Taylor recognized that unless employers understood how production actually occurred, they had little ability to increase the efficiency of work (and thus their profits).oBy breaking down jobs into their component tasks and subjecting each task to time-motion study, Taylor was able to redesign work to increase the pace of production. This outcome was at odds with the interests of workers, who wanted to maintain the existing wage-effort bargain.Job analysis is an exercise of employer power.oHenry Ford, who introduced the moving assembly line, took Taylor’s scientific management a step further. The assembly line allowed the employer not only to prescribe what was done and in what order (the technique that Taylor had pioneered), but also to determine how quickly each step was done. In these ways, job analysis is anexercise of power by employers.Steps:oGathering Job Information - Job data may be obtained in several ways. The more common methods of analyzing jobs areInterviews. The job analyst may question individual employees and managersabout the job under review.Questionnaires. The job analyst may circulate carefully prepared questionnaires to be filled out individually by jobholders and managers. These forms will be used to obtain data in the areas of job duties and tasks performed, purpose of the job, physical setting, requirements for performing the job (skill, education, experience, physical and mental demands), equipment and materials used, and special health and safety concerns.
Observation. The job analyst may learn about the jobs by observing and recording on a standardized form the activities of jobholders. Video recording jobs for later study is an approach used by some organizations.