o Southard and Higgins racquetball forehand shot unfreezing the joints allow

O southard and higgins racquetball forehand shot

This preview shows page 14 - 16 out of 18 pages.

o Southard and Higgins – racquetball forehand shot, “unfreezing” the joints allow for an increase in racquet velocity at ball impact Changes in Altering an Old or Preferred Coordination Pattern : when confronted with learning a new skill, we often determine that it resembles a skill we already know how to perform, so we begin practicing it using movement characteristics similar to those of the old skill o We must overcome movement pattern biases to achieve the goal of the new skill to be learned and performed o It is possible to overcome these biases, but it requires a lot of practice o ***Observable pattern of ‘ stability-instability-stability ’ characterizes the transition between the production of the preferred movement pattern and the production of the goal pattern Changes in Muscles Used to Perform the Skill : if practicing a skill results in coordination changes, we should expect a related change in the muscles a person uses while performing the skill; initially, muscles are used inappropriately o More muscles than needed are often involved (inefficiency) o The timing of the activation of the involved muscle groups is incorrect o Change in muscle use reflects a reorganization of the motor control system as that skill is acquired (degrees of freedom problem; reducing the amount of work the system has to do) Changes in Energy Cost : practice should positively influence the energy- efficiency of the performer o Economy of movement refers to minimizing the energy cost of performing a skill; beginners often expend too much energy while experts perform more efficiently, with minimal energy expenditure o Physiological energy (oxygen, caloric cost) and mechanical energy (metabolic rate) will both decrease with experience o Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) also decreases (the task feels easier for experts than it does for beginners) Changes in Achieving the Kinematic Goals of the Skill : kinematic – spatial and temporal features of the movements involved in performing a skill Displacement is the first; the spatial characteristics of a skill are generally the first ones people successfully acquire Velocity is second, acceleration is third Changes in Visual Selective Attention : beginners typically look at too many things, often leading them to direct their visual attention to inappropriate environmental cues Changes in Conscious Attention Demands When Performing a Skill : acquisition of automaticity through practice Changes in Error Detection and Correction Capability : improving the capability to identify and correct one’s own movement errors either during (if the movement is slow enough) or after the performance of the skill Changes in Brain Activity : as a motor skill becomes more automatic, the less the cerebellum is needed in performance (seems to relate to adjusting movement
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kinematics according to sensory input in order to produce an appropriate movement) **A Performer Characteristic That DOES NOT CHANGE Across the Stages of Learning
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