Research report - National Child Labour Action Programme for South Africa (1).doc

Engaged in practically all kinds of economic

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engaged in practically all kinds of economic activities, whether for three hours or for twelve hours or more per week, the majority reside in deep rural areas. The only exception is children employed in private households who are working for three hours a week or more. As working hours per week increase, the proportion of children in all industries, other than commercial agriculture, who reside in deep rural areas also increase. This is probably related to the high levels of poverty in the deep rural areas, and indicates that these areas should be emphasised in a programme of action. For all industries, the majority of children worked between three and seven hours a week. This time category accounted for 55% of children working in agriculture, 48% of retail and 47% of other
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industries. Table 1.3 – Children aged 5-14 years working 3 hours a week or more in economic activities by industry Industry Number of children spending 3 h/w + on economy. Activities Proportion of these children who live in deep rural areas Number of children working 3 h/w + as proportion of all children aged 5-14 Subsistence agriculture 390 000 83% 3.7% Wholesale and retail trade ('retail') 225 000 58% 2.1% Commercial agriculture 67 000 61% 0.6% Manufacturing and construction 15 000 93% 0.1% Private households 13 000 31% 0.1% Total 728 000 44% 6.8% Table 1.4 – Children aged 5-14 years working 12 hours/week or more in economic activities by industry Industry Number of children spending 12 h/w + on economic activities Proportion of these children who live in deep rural areas Number of children working 12 h/w + as proportion of all children aged 5-14 Subsistence agriculture 129 000 91% 1.2% Wholesale and retail trade 86 000 63% 0.8% Commercial agriculture 29 000 52% 0.3% Manufacturing and construction 12 000 100% 0.1% Private households 8 000 50% 0.1% Total: 266 000 77% 2.5% Children from poorer households are more likely than others to be engaged in all forms of work. Thus while children in households with annual incomes of R4 200 or less account for 21% of all children, they account for 26% of children engaged in only economic activities for three hours a week or more, 28% of those engaged only in school labour, 25% of those engaged in both economic and school labour, and 27% of those engaged in economic, household and school labour. The R18 001+ category, on the other hand, accounts for 29% of all the children, yet only 18% of those doing economic, household and school labour. In South Africa in general, 39% of children were living in households with both their parents , while only 25% of children collecting fuel were living in such households. 70% of children engaged in such activities were living with their mother only or with neither parent. Of the small number of children begging that were captured in the survey, only 15% were living with both parents, whereas 61% were living with neither parent.
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