Preschoolers understand that a frog can move by itself but a car takes effort. Growth: Animals get bigger and more complex, objects do not. Internal Parts: Insides of animate and inanimate objects are different. Blood and bones rather than cotton and metal. Inheritance: Only living things have offspring resembling their parents. Asking why a dog was pink, thought parents might be pink. Why a phone is pink, someone painted it pink. Knew that a baby pig raised by a cow would still grow up to be a pig. Illness: Colour blindness and allergies more likely to be inherited by parents, but a sore throat from other people or contaminated food
Healing: Animate things can recover and regrow, toys need to be fixed. Know the difference between a human haircut and a doll haircut. Teleological Explanations and Essentialism: Kids believe that all living things exist for a purpose (fish are smooth so they don’t cut other things), this is teleological . Based on knowledge that tools and machines are built with a purpose. Kids also believe that living things are rooted in essentialism , that is, all birds share an underlying “birdness”. Explains why they know that a baby kangaroo will grow up to be a kangaroo if it’s raised by a cow. Also believe that removing an animal’s inside parts (like in taxidermy) makes it no longer an animal. Notion of inside parts are located near center of the body. Some people have different essentialism, eg. First Nations people believe that if you replace a cow’s blood with pig blood it will grow up to be a pig, the blood is the essence of “pigness”. Comes from watching animals, parent’s explanations and reading stories, (Bear is really mad!) etc. Forms naïve biology. Understanding People: Naïve psychology. Understand goal-oriented behaviour and intent. One-year-olds understand intent: Intent: Olineck and Poulin-Dubois (2009) demonstrated that if you try to pull apart something and pretend that you can’t do it, the infant will pull it apart. They understand intent. 14 month olds. What’s more, the parts of the brain responsible for the actions become apparent before the adult achieves the goal, as if they knew what they were doing. Theory of Mind: Between ages 2 and 5, infants get this. “Lemme see” or “I wanna sit”, they are AWARE of their desires at 2 years old. They understand that they and other people have desires and that desires can cause behaviour. At 3, children distinguish mental world from physical. They know the difference between one girl having a cookie and one girl thinking about a cookie. They’ll use mental verbs like “think” and “forget” and “remember”. At age 4, start to understand other people’s actions, start to do well on the false-belief (Sally-Anne) task. Before 3.5 years, aren’t good at this. One explanation is an innate specialized module coming online in preschool years. Finding prompted in part by autism disorder not getting this.
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- Fall '13
- Intelligence quotient, Theory of cognitive development