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Adjunctsupplement addition extra ad ŋkt ˈ ʒʌ n đi u

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Adjunct=supplement, addition,extra/ adŋ(k)t/ˈʒʌ(n)Điu thêm vào, cáiphvào; vt phthu cMusculoskeletal = Relating to ordenoting the musculature andskeleton together./ m skj lˌʌʊ əʊsk l t( )l/ˈɛ ɪ əChng bnh cơxngươSuffer from =be afflicted by, betroubled with, undergo, experience,encounter/ s f /ˈ ʌ əCh u đngComplementary/k mpl m nt( )ri/ɒɪˈɛə(adj)(thuc) BsungDisenchantment = disillusionment,disappointment, dissatisfaction/ d s( )n tntm( )nt/ˌ ɪɪˈ ʃɑːə(n)Stht vngREADING PASSAGE 3
You should spend about 20 minutes onQuestions 27-40which are based on Reading Passage3 below.Play is a serious businessDoes play help develop bigger, better brains?Bryant Furlow investigates1Paragraph.....................................................................................................................................................................APlaying is a serious business. Children engrossed in a make-believe world,fox cubs play-fighting or kittens teasing a ball of string aren’t just having fun.Play may look like a carefree and exuberant way to pass the time before thehard work of adulthood comes along, but there’s much more to it than that.For a start, play can even cost animals their lives. Eighty per cent of deathsamong juvenile fur seals occur because playing pups fail to spot predatorsapproaching. It is also extremely expensive in terms of energy. Playful younganimals use around two or three per cent of their energy cavorting, and inchildren that figure can be closer to fifteen per cent. ‘Even two or three percent is huge,’ says John Byers of Idaho University. ‘You just don’t find animalswasting energy like that,’ he adds. There must be a reason.2Paragraph.....................................................................................................................................................................BBut if play is not simply a developmental hiccup, as biologists once thought,why did it evolve? The latest idea suggests that play has evolved to build bigbrains. In other words, playing makes you intelligent. Playfulness, it seems, iscommon only among mammals, although a few of the larger-brained birdsalso indulge. Animals at play often use unique signs - tail- wagging in dogs,
for example - to indicate that activity superficially resembling adult behaviouris not really in earnest. A popular explanation of play has been that it helpsjuveniles develop the skills they will need to hunt, mate and socialise asadults. Another has been that it allows young animals to get in shape for adultlife by improving their respiratory endurance. Both these ideas have beenquestioned in recent years.3Paragraph.....................................................................................................................................................................CTake the exercise theory. If play evolved to build muscle or as a kind ofendurance training, then you would expect to see permanent benefits. ButByers points out that the benefits of increased exercise disappear rapidly aftertraining stops, so any improvement in endurance resulting from juvenile playwould be lost by adulthood. ‘If the function of play was to get into shape,’ saysByers, ‘the optimum time for playing would depend on when it was mostadvantageous for the young of a particular species to do so. But it doesn’twork like that.’ Across species, play tends to peak about halfway through thesuckling stage and then decline.

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