The myelin sheath is rich in lipids but also contains

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appear in the intercellular space between these cells. The myelin sheath is rich in lipids but also contains proteins. The Nervous System Review - Image Diversity: oligodendrocytes Schwann cells 15. What are some diseases in which the axonal myelin sheath is progressively destroyed? Multiple sclerosis is a severe disease caused by progressive destruction of the myelin sheath of the central nervous system. Guillain-Barré disease is due to the destruction of the myelin
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sheath in the peripheral nervous system caused by autoimmunity (attacks carried out by the immune system of the body). A genetic deficiency in the formation or preservation of the myelin sheath is an X-linked inheritance called adrenoleukodystrophy. The movie “Lorenzo’s Oil” featured a boy with this disease and his father's dramatic search for a treatment. Meninges 16. What are meninges and cerebrospinal fluid? Meninges are the membranes that enclose and protect the central nervous system (CNS). Cerebrospinal fluid is the fluid that separates the three layers that form the meninges. It has the functions of nutrient transport, defense and the mechanical protection of the CNS. Cerebrospinal fluid fills and protects cavities of the brain and the spinal cord. The Nervous System Review - Image Diversity: meninges The Functions and Anatomy of the Brain
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17. What is the difference between the brain and the cerebrum? What are the main parts of these structures? The concept of brain, or encephalon, includes the cerebrum (mostly referred to as the hemispheres, but in reality, the concept also includes the thalamus and the hypothalamus), the brainstem (midbrain, pons and medulla) and the cerebellum. The brain and spinal cord form the central nervous system (CNS). 18. How is the cerebrum anatomically divided? The cerebrum is divided into two cerebral hemispheres, the right and the left. Each hemisphere is composed of four cerebral lobes: the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the temporal lobe and the occipital lobe. Each cerebral lobe contains gray matter and white matter. Gray matter is the outer portion and is made of neuron bodies; gray matter is also known as the cerebral cortex. White matter is the inner portion and is white because it is in the region where the axons of cortical neurons pass. The Nervous System Review - Image Diversity: brain structure 19. Which region of the brain is responsible for coordination and balancing of the body?
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In the central nervous system, the cerebellum is the main controller of motor coordination and balance. (Do not confuse this with muscle command, which is performed by the cerebral hemispheres). The Nervous System Review - Image Diversity: cerebellum 20. Why is the cerebellum more developed in mammals that jump or fly? The cerebellum is the main structure in the brain that coordinates the movement and balance of the body. For this reason, it appears to be more developed in mammals that jump or fly (such as bats). The cerebellum is also very important for the flight of birds.
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